ch14 1406

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Published on December 12, 2007

Author: Goldie

Source: authorstream.com

Figure 14-01:  Figure 14-01 LE 14-2:  LE 14-2 Removed stamens from purple flower Transferred sperm- bearing pollen from stamens of white flower to egg- bearing carpel of purple flower Carpel Stamens Parental generation (P) Pollinated carpel matured into pod Planted seeds from pod Examined offspring: all purple flowers First generation offspring (F1) LE 14-2a:  LE 14-2a Removed stamens from purple flower Transferred sperm- bearing pollen from stamens of white flower to egg- bearing carpel of purple flower Stamens Planted seeds from pod Carpel Parental generation (P) Pollinated carpel matured into pod LE 14-2b:  LE 14-2b First generation offspring (F1) Examined offspring: all purple flowers LE 14-3:  LE 14-3 P Generation (true-breeding parents) F1 Generation (hybrids) F2 Generation Purple flowers White flowers All plants had purple flowers Table 14-1:  Table 14-1 LE 14-4:  LE 14-4 Allele for purple flowers Homologous pair of chromosomes Allele for white flowers Locus for flower-color gene LE 14-5_1:  LE 14-5_1 Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: P Generation F1 Generation Purple flowers PP White flowers pp p P Purple flowers Pp Appearance: Genetic makeup: LE 14-5_2:  LE 14-5_2 Appearance: P Generation Genetic makeup: Gametes F1 Generation Appearance: Genetic makeup: Gametes: F2 Generation Purple flowers Pp P p 1 2 1 2 P p F1 sperm F1 eggs PP Pp Pp pp P p 3 : 1 Purple flowers PP White flowers pp P p LE 14-6:  LE 14-6 Phenotype Purple Purple 3 Purple Genotype PP (homozygous Pp (heterozygous Pp (heterozygous pp (homozygous 1 2 1 Ratio 1:2:1 White Ratio 3:1 1 LE 14-7:  LE 14-7 Dominant phenotype, unknown genotype: PP or Pp? If PP, then all offspring purple: p p P P Pp Pp Pp Pp If Pp, then 1 2 offspring purple and 1 2 offspring white: p p P P pp pp Pp Pp Recessive phenotype, known genotype: pp LE 14-8:  LE 14-8 P Generation F1 Generation YYRR Gametes YR yr yyrr YyRr Hypothesis of dependent assortment Hypothesis of independent assortment Sperm Eggs YR Yr yr YR YR yr Eggs YYRR YyRr YyRr yyrr yR yr Phenotypic ratio 3:1 F2 Generation (predicted offspring) YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr YYRr YYrr YyRr Yyrr YyRR YyRr yyRR yyRr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr Phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1 YR Yr yR yr Sperm 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 9 16 3 16 3 16 3 16 1 4 1 4 1 4 LE 14-9:  LE 14-9 Segregation of alleles into eggs Rr Sperm R r R r R R R r Eggs r R r r Segregation of alleles into sperm Rr 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 LE 14-10:  LE 14-10 Red CRCR Gametes P Generation CR CW White CWCW Pink CRCW CR Gametes CW F1 Generation F2 Generation Eggs CR CW CR CRCR CRCW CRCW CWCW CW Sperm 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 LE 14-10a:  LE 14-10a P Generation Red CRCR Gametes CR CW White CWCW LE 14-10b:  LE 14-10b F1 Generation Gametes CR CW Pink CRCW 1 2 1 2 LE 14-10c:  LE 14-10c F2 Generation Eggs CRCW Sperm CWCW CRCW CRCR CR CW CR CW 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Table 14-2:  Table 14-2 LE 14-11:  LE 14-11 Sperm BC bC Bc bc BbCc BBCc BbCC BBCC BbCC bbCC BbCc bbCc Bbcc BBcc BbCc BBCc BbCc bbCc Bbcc bbcc BC bC Bc bc BbCc BbCc 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 9 16 3 16 4 16 LE 14-12:  LE 14-12 aabbcc Aabbcc AaBbcc AaBbCc AABbCc AABBCc AABBCC AaBbCc AaBbCc 20/64 15/64 6/64 1/64 Fraction of progeny Figure 14-13:  Figure 14-13 LE 14-14a:  LE 14-14a Ww ww ww Ww Ww ww Ww ww ww Ww WW ww or Ww No widow’s peak Third generation (two sisters) Widow’s peak Second generation (parents plus aunts and uncles) First generation (grandparents) Dominant trait (widow’s peak) LE 14-14b:  LE 14-14b First generation (grandparents) Ff Ff FF or Ff ff ff Ff Ff ff ff Ff Second generation (parents plus aunts and uncles) Third generation (two sisters) Attached earlobe Free earlobe ff FF or Ff Recessive trait (attached earlobe) Figure 14-15:  Figure 14-15 Figure 14-16:  Figure 14-16 LE 14-17a:  LE 14-17a Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid withdrawn Fetus A sample of amniotic fluid can be taken starting at the 14th to 16th week of pregnancy. Centrifugation Placenta Uterus Cervix Fluid Fetal cells Biochemical tests can be performed immediately on the amniotic fluid or later on the cultured cells. Biochemical tests Several weeks Karyotyping Fetal cells must be cultured for several weeks to obtain sufficient numbers for karyotyping. LE 14-17b:  LE 14-17b Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Placenta Chorionic villi Fetus Suction tube inserted through cervix Fetal cells Biochemical tests Karyotyping and biochemical tests can be performed on the fetal cells immediately, providing results within a day or so. Several hours A sample of chorionic villus tissue can be taken as early as the 8th to 10th week of pregnancy. Karyotyping LE 14-UN273:  LE 14-UN273 George Arlene Michael Ann Carla Wilma Sam Tina Alan Daniel Tom Sandra Christopher

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