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Published on February 20, 2008

Author: Dixon

Source: authorstream.com

Jupiter and Saturn: Lords of the Planets:  Jupiter and Saturn: Lords of the Planets Chapter Fourteen Guiding Questions:  Guiding Questions Why is the best month to see Jupiter different from one year to the next? Why are there important differences between the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn? What is going on in Jupiter’s Great Red Spot? What is the nature of the multicolored clouds of Jupiter and Saturn? What does the chemical composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere imply about the planet’s origin? How do astronomers know about the deep interiors of Jupiter and Saturn? How do Jupiter and Saturn generate their intense magnetic fields? Why would it be dangerous for humans to visit certain parts of the space around Jupiter? How was it discovered that Saturn has rings? Are Saturn’s rings actually solid bands that encircle the planet? How uniform and smooth are Saturn’s rings? How do Saturn’s satellites affect the character of its rings? Jupiter and Saturn are the most massive planets in the solar system:  Jupiter and Saturn are the most massive planets in the solar system Jupiter and Saturn are both much larger than Earth Each is composed of 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 5% all other elements by mass Both planets have a higher percentage of heavy elements than does the Sun Jupiter and Saturn both rotate so rapidly that the planets are noticeably flattened Long orbital periods of Jupiter and Saturn cause favorable viewing times to shift:  Long orbital periods of Jupiter and Saturn cause favorable viewing times to shift Unlike the terrestrial planets, Jupiter and Saturn exhibit differential rotation:  Unlike the terrestrial planets, Jupiter and Saturn exhibit differential rotation Atmospheres:  Atmospheres The visible “surfaces” of Jupiter and Saturn are actually the tops of their clouds The rapid rotation of the planets twists the clouds into dark belts and light zones that run parallel to the equator The outer layers of both planets’ atmospheres show differential rotation The equatorial regions rotate slightly faster than the polar regions For both Jupiter and Saturn, the polar rotation rate is nearly the same as the internal rotation rate Spacecraft images show remarkable activity in the clouds of Jupiter and Saturn:  Spacecraft images show remarkable activity in the clouds of Jupiter and Saturn Storms:  Storms Both Jupiter and Saturn emit more energy than they receive from the Sun Presumably both planets are still cooling The colored ovals visible in the Jovian atmosphere represent gigantic storms Some, such as the Great Red Spot, are quite stable and persist for many years Storms in Saturn’s atmosphere seem to be shorter-lived :  Storms in Saturn’s atmosphere seem to be shorter-lived The internal heat of Jupiter and Saturn has a major effect on the planets’ atmospheres:  The internal heat of Jupiter and Saturn has a major effect on the planets’ atmospheres A space probe has explored Jupiter’s deep atmosphere:  A space probe has explored Jupiter’s deep atmosphere There are presumed to be three cloud layers in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn The reasons for the distinctive colors of these different layers are not yet known The cloud layers in Saturn’s atmosphere are spread out over a greater range of altitude than those of Jupiter, giving Saturn a more washed-out appearance Saturn’s atmosphere contains less helium than Jupiter’s atmosphere This lower abundance may be the result of helium raining downward into the planet Helium “rainfall” may also account for Saturn’s surprisingly strong heat output The oblateness of Jupiter and Saturn reveals their rocky cores:  The oblateness of Jupiter and Saturn reveals their rocky cores Jupiter probably has a rocky core several times more massive than the Earth The core is surrounded by a layer of liquid “ices” (water, ammonia, methane, and associated compounds) On top of this is a layer of helium and liquid metallic hydrogen and an outermost layer composed primarily of ordinary hydrogen and helium Saturn’s internal structure is similar to that of Jupiter, but its core makes up a larger fraction of its volume and its liquid metallic hydrogen mantle is shallower than that of Jupiter Metallic hydrogen inside Jupiter and Saturn endows the planets with strong magnetic fields:  Metallic hydrogen inside Jupiter and Saturn endows the planets with strong magnetic fields Jupiter and Saturn have strong magnetic fields created by currents in the metallic hydrogen layer Jupiter’s huge magnetosphere contains a vast current sheet of electrically charged particles Saturn’s magnetic field and magnetosphere are much less extensive than Jupiter’s Jupiter and Saturn have extensive magnetospheres:  Jupiter and Saturn have extensive magnetospheres The Jovian magnetosphere encloses a low-density plasma of charged particles The magnetosphere exists in a delicate balance between pressures from the plasma and from the solar wind When this balance is disturbed, the size of the magnetosphere fluctuates drastically Synchrotron Radiation:  Synchrotron Radiation Charged particles in the densest portions of Jupiter’s magnetosphere emit synchrotron radiation at radio wavelengths Earth-based observations reveal three broad rings encircling Saturn:  Earth-based observations reveal three broad rings encircling Saturn Slide21:  Saturn is circled by a system of thin, broad rings lying in the plane of the planet’s equator This system is tilted away from the plane of Saturn’s orbit, which causes the rings to be seen at various angles by an Earth-based observer over the course of a Saturnian year Slide22:  Rings are not solid sheets (proved by Maxwell). Keeler proved by doppler shift that they are “ring particles” individually circling saturn. Rings are bright because 80% reflectance because of ice (-290 F in sunshine and -330 F in shadow) Ring particle sizes: 1cm, 5m . Ring material is ancient debris failed to accrete in to satellite. If you compress saturn’s rings they will form a moon of only 100 Km in diameter. Slide23:  Ring particles cannot form moon because they are inside “Roche Limit”. At Roche limit tidal force from planet = gravity force between particles. All moons are outside this limit. Caution: Limit Applicable only gravity is holding. Chemical bonds are much stronger !! Jupiter also has rings, but the particles are very tiny and small in number. Made of meteorite impacts on the satellites. Saturn’s rings are composed of numerous icy fragments, while Jupiter’s rings are made of small rocky particles:  Saturn’s rings are composed of numerous icy fragments, while Jupiter’s rings are made of small rocky particles The principal rings of Saturn are composed of numerous particles of ice and ice-coated rock ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 10 m Jupiter’s faint rings are composed of a relatively small amount of small, dark, rocky particles that reflect very little light Slide26:  Cassini division, Encke gap . Pioneer 11 detected narrow F ring (100 Km) Slide27:  The faint F ring, which is just outside the A ring, is kept narrow by the gravitational pull of shepherd satellites Saturn’s rings consist of thousands of narrow, closely spaced ringlets:  Saturn’s rings consist of thousands of narrow, closely spaced ringlets Saturn’s inner satellites affect the appearance and structure of its rings:  Saturn’s inner satellites affect the appearance and structure of its rings Slide31:  Inner satellites affect the structure of the rings. Mimas has 22.6 hour orbital period. Cassini division has 11.3 hours. 2:1 resonance. During alignment of Mimas and particles in Cassini division, gravity of saturn and Mimas remove particles from orbit. Key Words:  Key Words A ring B ring belts brown oval C ring Cassini division current sheet D ring decametric radiation decimetric radiation differential rotation E ring Encke gap F ring G ring Great Red Spot hot spot internal rotation period light scattering liquid metallic hydrogen noble gases nonthermal radiation, oblate, oblateness plasma ring particles ringlets Roche limit shepherd satellite synchrotron radiation thermal radiation tidal force white oval zonal winds zones

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