ch11issuesinsport

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Published on January 14, 2009

Author: aSGuest10506

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ISSUES IN SPORTS CH. 11 : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. ISSUES IN SPORTS CH. 11 THREATS TO THE INTEGRITY OF SPORT : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. THREATS TO THE INTEGRITY OF SPORT Academic issues Breaking the rules to gain competitive advantages Pressures to win Violence Gambling Arms race (keeping up w/ Jones) Excessive commercialization PROBLEMS IN YOUTH SPORTS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PROBLEMS IN YOUTH SPORTS Pressure to win (at all costs) Poorly trained coaches Parental interference and pressure Loss of values or ideals (cheating) Injury risks ignored Violence and gamesmanship Sport specialization Only the skilled play—the others sit on the bench Restricted to one position Financial burden on parentsand disruptive to families Not fun any more GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SPORTS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SPORTS Title IX still not being observed Not enough female coaches Not enough air time TV etc. Professional athletes in some sports still not receiving same monies as men. Not enough female athletic directors EQUALITY FOR MINORITIES : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EQUALITY FOR MINORITIES Excluded from professional leagues and most colleges and schools Quota system(only small # allowed on team) Stacking(competed for positions) Academic exploitation Economic exploitation (www.bus.ucf.edu/sport/public/dowloads/2004_Race_Gender_Report_Card.pdf) Limited opportunities for coaching and management positions EQUALITY FOR SENIOR CITIZENS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EQUALITY FOR SENIOR CITIZENS Biases limiting prior opportunities Living longer and quality of life issues Increased political and economic influence Masters’ competitions 1987—Senior Games EQUALITY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EQUALITY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS 1952—Paralympic Games 1968—Special Olympics 1975—Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act today) 1978—Amateur Sports Act 1990—Americans with Disabilities Act PROBLEMS FACING (high school) INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PROBLEMS FACING (high school) INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS Lack of adequate funding Lack of adequate facilities and equipment Lack of qualified coaches for all sports Lack of parental and school support Lack of emphasis on teaching educational values ISSUES IN INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. ISSUES IN INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS Too much emphasis on winning Year-round conditioning programs Specialization in one sport Athletes playing while hurt Coaches’ jobs depending on winning Drug use and abuse Unsportsmanlike conduct (violence) “No pass, no play” Hazing ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Academics Preferential admissions Missed classes Freshman eligibility Unearned grades Failure to graduate ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Recruiting violations Contacts Transcript tampering Inducements (persuading) Pressures to win Sports as businesses (commercialization) ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Loss of educational and ethical values Loss of institutional control Media exposure and influence Point shaving and gambling Drug use and abuse PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS Widespread use in society and in sport is indicative of an overemphasis on winning Restorative or therapeutic, such as anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain Protein supplements—increase muscle mass Creatine—increase energy in short duration Amphetamines—delay fatigue and increasethe body’s endurance capacity Anabolic steroids—build muscle mass and strength PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORTS Sources—trainers, doctors, coaches, and teammates Drug testing http://www.ncaa.org/library/sports_sciences/drug_testing_program/2003-04/2003-04_drug_testing_program.pdf National Center for Drug Free Sport, Inc. administers the NCAA testing program 4th Amendment—guarantee of rights against unreasonable searches (urinalysis) 14th Amendment adds state protection PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS When coaches and athletes violate athletic regulations, such as drug abuse or gambling, Sanction them for the first offense Give a two-year probation for the second offense Ban violators for life for the third offense Withhold from an institution for five years one grant-in-aid for every athlete who does not graduate within six years PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Require that coaches of non-revenue producing sports be employed full-time within the institution Base coaches’ job security and salaries not on their won-lost records, but on the fulfillment of their other job responsibilities and the provision of positive experiences for their athletes Restrict schedules of all sports to no more than one day of competition per week while classes are in session PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Excuse athletes from classes no more than five days per academic year for travel and competition Admit only those athletes who meet the academic standards of admission to the colleges they attend Limit grants-in-aid to tuition, fees, and books, and award them only on the basis of need PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PROPOSED CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Guarantee grants-in-aid Make freshmen ineligible Eliminate trivial recruiting rules Make it illegal for a booster to offer money to a college athlete Pay student-athletes ISSUES WITH THE OLYMPIC GAMES : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. ISSUES WITH THE OLYMPIC GAMES Drug abuse Politics Commercialization Cheating POSSIBILIITES FOR THE REFORM OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES : © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. POSSIBILIITES FOR THE REFORM OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES Build a permanent Olympic Center that wouldbe open year-round for championships Enlarge the Olympic Games to include moresports during more days Reduce excessive displays of nationalism during award ceremonies, such as anthems Enlarge and revamp the membership of the International Olympic Committee Remove team sports competition Make the Olympic Games annual events

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