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Travel-Nature

Published on March 25, 2008

Author: Goldye

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Mongols The Yuan Dynasty Map: Mongol Empire End of the Yuan Dynasty Faces of History: Kublai Khan The Mongol Empire Slide2:  Reading Focus How did the nomadic Mongols build an empire? How did China change under the Mongol rulers of the Yuan dynasty? Why did the Yuan dynasty decline and finally end? Main Idea The Mongols built a vast empire across much of Asia, founded the Yuan dynasty in China, and opened China and the region to greater foreign contacts and trade. The Mongol Empire Slide3:  In the 1200s a nomadic people called the Mongols burst forth from Central Asia to create the largest land empire in history. The Mongols Slide4:  Separate Clans Mongols divided into separate clans, each led by a khan, chief Khans rose to power through military skills, ability to lead 1100s, Temujin, powerful khan, began to conquer rivals, unite Mongol clans Campaign of Conquest Mongol forces began bloody campaign of conquest; highly mobile armies Employed brutality, psychological warfare; burned towns, killed inhabitants Sent agents ahead to instill fear; soon people surrendered without a fight Genghis Khan 1206, Temujin completed task, took name Genghis Khan, “Universal Ruler” Set out to build empire, organized Mongols into powerful military machine Strict discipline, demanded loyalty, rewarded those who pleased him The Universal Ruler Slide5:  The Mongol Empire Slide6:  The Golden Horde Golden Horde stood ready to invade western Europe Grandson Batu learned of Great Kahn’s death, suddenly turned back India, Western Europe escaped Mongol wrath Most of Eurasia devastated Millions had died, entire cities annihilated Slide7:  Stability in Asia Mongol Empire established peace, stability across Asia Some historians call period Pax Mongolica, “Mongol Peace” Guarded trade routes across Asia, allowed trade to increase; people, goods, ideas flowed across Asia Some believe Black Plague spread from Asia to Europe during period The Mongol Peace Mongols built empire with brutality, ruled peacefully Tolerated local beliefs, ways of life, allowed local rulers to stay in power as long as they paid tribute to Mongols Some Mongols adopted aspects of more civilized cultures; Mongols in Central Asia, Persia, adopted Islam Slide8:  Identify Supporting Details How were the Mongols able to build a vast empire across much of Eurasia? Answer(s): army was skilled and well organized, rules promoted loyalty and obedience; tactics involved brutality and psychological warfare; built fear in those they conquered Slide9:  Great Kahn 1260, Kublai Khan became Great Kahn of Mongol Empire Determined to complete conquest of China begun in 1235 Kublai Kahn Rules China As emperor, Kublai Khan tried to gain loyalty of Chinese subjects Adopted Chinese practices, gave dynasty Chinese name Southern Song Mongols ruled northern China Southern Song dynasty ruled in south, fiercely resisted Mongols 1279, Song defeated; Kublai Khan created Yuan dynasty New Capital Kublai Khan moved capital to near what is now Beijing Built Chinese-style walled city, lavish palace, adopted Chinese court ceremonies The Yuan Dynasty Slide11:  Mongol Identity Kublai Khan tried to rule as Chinese emperor But took care to see Mongols not absorbed into Chinese culture Mongols lived apart from Chinese, had little in common Limited Power Kublai Khan distrusted Chinese, limited power Chinese officials served at local level, could not hold high government posts Mongols invited foreigners to hold government office Separation Individual friendships between Mongols, Chinese discouraged Mongols forbidden to marry Chinese Different laws, taxes for Chinese; could not own weapons, serve in military Kublai Khan Rules China Slide12:  Mongols burdened Chinese with heavy taxes Large part of taxes supported public-works projects Chinese laborers built new roads, extended Grand Canal Improvements made shipping rice, other goods from southern China to northern China easier, more reliable Taxes to Trade Slide13:  Some scholars question whether Polo reached China or just related stories he heard in his travels, but his tales increased interest in China. As a result of Kublai Khan’s foreign trade policies, many merchants, travelers and missionaries came to China. Most were from Southwest Asia and India. However a few came from Europe as well. One of the most famous of these Europeans was Marco Polo. Europeans to China Slide14:  Summarize How did Mongol rule in the Yuan dynasty affect life for the Chinese? Answer(s): made the Chinese subordinate to the Mongols; limited their power Slide15:  The Yuan dynasty weakened during the last part of Kublai Khan’s reign. One cause was a number of military defeats. All of his invasions into Southeast Asia failed, and Mongol armies suffered huge losses. End of the Yuan Dynasty Slide16:  Military and Monetary Losses Slide18:  Identify Cause and Effect What factors led to the end of the Yuan dynasty? Answer(s): military defeats and failed invasions; lack of good leadership; power struggles; Chinese discontent

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