ch10 CE

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Published on February 24, 2009

Author: jpward003

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Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration Chapter 10 Basic Data Management Objectives : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 2 Objectives Discover changing data using Data Manipulation (DML) statements Describe syntax for, and use the INSERT statement Describe syntax for, and use the UPDATE statement Describe syntax for, and use the DELETE statement Describe and learn how to control transactions Introduction to Basic Data Management : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 3 Introduction to Basic Data Management Tables Most basic storage unit for data Two-dimensional storage structures comprised of rows and columns Column stores individual values such as a person’s name Row stores all the things about a person Statements to work with tables INSERT Adds new rows to a table Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 4 Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 5 Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 6 Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) Statements to work with tables UPDATE Allows existing rows in a table to be changed DELETE Lets you remove existing rows from tables More advanced methods of data management Programming Language for SQL (PL/SQL) Data Pump import and export SQL Loader utility Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 7 Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 8 Introduction to Basic Data Management (continued) What are DML and DDL? : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 9 What are DML and DDL? Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements Allow you to change data in tables Statements: INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE Data Definition Language (DDL) statements Used to change data structures such as tables Make permanent changes to the database Cannot be undone (roll back) COMMIT statement Permanently stores changes to a database ROLLBACK statement Reverses changes done with COMMIT What is a Transaction? : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 10 What is a Transaction? Transaction Sequence of one or more DML statement-induced database changes Not yet permanently committed to that database COMMIT and ROLLBACK COMMIT makes changes to the database ROLLBACK undoes changes to the database What is a Transaction? (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 11 What is a Transaction? (continued) What is a Transaction? (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 12 What is a Transaction? (continued) What is a Transaction? (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 13 What is a Transaction? (continued) What is a Transaction? (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 14 What is a Transaction? (continued) MERGE statement DML statement Used to merge data from a source table into a target table Committing changes is a more frequent event Than undoing changes Three types of INSERT statements A single table INSERT statement A non-conditional multiple-table INSERT statement A conditional multiple table INSERT statement Using DML Statements : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 15 Using DML Statements DML statements INSERT UPDATE DELETE The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 16 The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) Single table INSERT Example: The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 17 The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 18 The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) Non-conditional multiple-table INSERT Example: The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 19 The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 20 The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) Conditional multiple table INSERT Example: The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 21 The INSERT Statement (Adding New Data) (continued) The UPDATE Statement (Changing Existing Data) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 22 The UPDATE Statement (Changing Existing Data) Syntax: Example: The DELETE Statement (Delete Existing Data) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 23 The DELETE Statement (Delete Existing Data) Syntax: Example: Controlling Transactions : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 24 Controlling Transactions Statements COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT SET TRANSACTION LOCK TABLE The COMMIT Statement : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 25 The COMMIT Statement Makes pending changes permanent For an existing transaction in the current session Syntax: COMMIT; The ROLLBACK Statement : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 26 The ROLLBACK Statement Removes pending changes (not yet committed) For an existing transaction in the current session Syntax: ROLLBACK; The SAVEPOINT Statement : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 27 The SAVEPOINT Statement Creates a label Label can be used later in a transaction as a point to roll back to Syntax: SET TRANSACTION Statement : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 28 SET TRANSACTION Statement Permits control of a transaction as a whole From the first DML statement through to a transaction completion statement or event Syntax: The LOCK TABLE Statement : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 29 The LOCK TABLE Statement Places a lock on an entire table Prohibiting other transactions in other sessions from making changes to that table Until the lock is released by ending the transaction (COMMIT or ROLLBACK) Syntax: Directory Objects : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 30 Directory Objects Directory object Used to create a reference to a file Which is stored externally to an Oracle database Typically, directory objects are used for external tables External table Contains data in a file outside the database External tables are read-only Can be created/loaded using an AS subquery clause Cannot have DML statements executed against them Summary : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 31 Summary DML or Data Manipulation Language statements Used to change data in tables in a database Can be rolled back using the ROLLBACK statement DDL or Data Definition Language statements Used to change the structure of database objects Automatically execute a COMMIT statement Transaction constitutes one or more database changes through DML statements The COMMIT statement stores changes to the database Summary (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 32 Summary (continued) The ROLLBACK statement will undo or reverse any DML statement-induced changes not yet committed DML statements INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE Can be rolled back Types of INSERT statement Single table Non-conditional multiple-table Conditional multiple table Summary (continued) : Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration 33 Summary (continued) The SAVEPOINT statement creates a label allowing for partial transaction rollback The SET TRANSACTION statement allows application of specific attributes for a transaction The LOCK TABLE statement allows locking of tables during the processing of a transaction Directory objects Used to create storage areas outside of an Oracle database

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