Ch1 lesson plan

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Information about Ch1 lesson plan

Published on March 19, 2008

Author: Teobaldo


Ch.1:  Ch.1 History Of Broadcast Media Telegraph:  Telegraph Telephone:  Telephone Telegraph and Telephone:  Telegraph and Telephone Helped shape Radio How?:  How? Both businesses supported themselves through commercial means. Both were point-to-point communication media. They sent a message from one source to another. Big corporations came to dominate both industries. The Inventors of Radio:  The Inventors of Radio Marconi Fessenden De-Forest Marconi:  Marconi First to send a wireless signal across Atlantic. 1901. He invented the wireless telegraph which sent morse code. Its greatest impact was ship to ship and ship to shore. It was point to point communication Marconi’s Spark Transmitter:  Marconi’s Spark Transmitter Fessenden:  Fessenden He is the first to transmit a human voice over the air. To carry a voice you needed a continuous wave. He invented a high speed alternator. Tested his invention Christmas Eve 1906. Fessenden’s Alternator:  Fessenden’s Alternator Crystal Sets:  Crystal Sets 1910 Most popular way of receiving radio signal was to use crystal sets. Home made kits that would pick up “wireless telephony” ( radio broadcasts) Could not amplify weak signals. De Forest:  De Forest Invented the Audion using Marconi’s Fleming Valve. It worked very much like a light bulb. He found that he could amplify radio waves by placing a metal grid between the plate and the wire. It acted as an amplifier. An audion is a bunch of fleming valves strung together. It became the basis for all radio transmission until the 1950 when the transistor was invented. Audion:  Audion Boardrooms and Courtrooms:  Boardrooms and Courtrooms Legal Tangles 1910 radio was still a point to point communications system Involved were- british Marconi, American Marconi, G.E. , At &T and Westinghouse. Each held patents on various elements that made radio broadcasting possible. Each company came out with its version of the radio using the other companies patents. The result was a costly legal battle. Radio Goes To War:  Radio Goes To War U.S. enters world war I in 1917 and takes over radio as a military asset. The navy had complete control over all the patents and products. The result was the various companies involved could pool their discoveries to improve radio communications. When the war ended the navy gave radio back. Congress did not like that a british company such as Marconi controlled much of radio. The solution was RCA. They bought out Marconi. RCA had a cross licensing agreement with the companies. They also divided the market. GE and Westinghouse would build radio equipment, RCA would sell it and AT&T would build the transmitters. Because Broadcasting was coming into play the deals fell apart. RCA Advertisements:  RCA Advertisements Broadcasting’s Beginnings:  Broadcasting’s Beginnings Radio's Fast Times: The 1920s is when broadcast radio became a national craze. There was an audience of enthusiastic hobbyists, playing with Crystal sets. better radio reception. Big business realized that broadcasting might make money. Broadcasting:  Broadcasting 1920 frank Conrad, engineer for westinghouse broadcasted from his garage. He broadcasted phonograph recordings and readings from newspapers. Westinghouse heard of this and started selling radio sets at a local store to hear his broadcasts. Westinghouse moved him into a studio and was given a license by the department of commerce and given the call letters of KDKA. The world oldest radio station Rapid Growth:  Rapid Growth Westinghouse quickly started building other stations. RCA, GE, and AT&T Also started stations Beg. of 1922 there were 28 stations 6 months later there were 378. End of year 570. Too fast too furious:  Too fast too furious With the rapid growth in popularity came problems. RCA was making big bucks, however, ATT prohibited in the deal from manufacturing radio sets was unhappy. After another round of legalities ATT left the broadcasting business and was given a monopoly of the phone system. That phone system would be used to link stations together. From fad to industry. Factors that shaped radio:  From fad to industry. Factors that shaped radio Big businesses got involved-Advertising Radio networks were formed Radio regulation evolved Advertisement development:  Advertisement development AT&T came up with the concept of “Toll Broadcasting” Somebody pays money to say something on air. works like the telephone booths The Queensboro Corporation, real estate company, was the first to buy time on WEAF. Advertisements:  Advertisements Friend or Foe? Though the public did not like them advertising revenue provided improved broadcasting. 1929 advertisers spent over 20 million dollars. Growth of Networks:  Growth of Networks cheaper to produce one program and broadcast it on several stations. Rural areas wanted same quality of programming Advertisers wanted a to reach a wider audience. RCA/NBC:  RCA/NBC National Broadcasting Company- created by David Sarnoff in 1926. Blue channel - original stations from RCA,GE, Westinghouse Red channel- original AT&T Total of 88 stations by 1933 David Sarnoff:  David Sarnoff CBS:  CBS In 1927 Columbia Broadcasting System. Headed by William S. Paley Started with 16 stations 1933 had 91 stations William S. Paley:  William S. Paley MBS:  MBS Mutual broadcasting system 1934 Networks:  Networks Brought nation closer-advertisers-politics-stars. 1936 - CBS began the "Columbia Workshop" series. In the November election, FDR used radio more effectively than Alf Landon, with both parties spending a record $2 million on radio. Radio and the law:  Radio and the law Wireless Ship Act of 1910- required certain passenger vessel to carry wireless sets. Titanic- Hundreds were saved because of wireless distress signals, but interference from operators who went on the air after knowledge of the disaster spread hampered rescue operations. For safety reasons, the public realized the need for legal guidelines. Rules:  Rules The Radio Act of 1912-required sending stations to be licensed by the secretary of commerce who could assign wavelengths and time limits. Ships, amateur users, and Government would have separate places in the spectrum. When broadcasting came about more problems developed because this act was set up for point to point communication. Radio Act 1927:  Radio Act 1927 The radio spectrum was a national resource. Licensees would have to operate in the public interest. Government censorship was forbidden. FRC was developed- Five member federal radio commission to enforce the new law Communications act of 1934 turned into FCC Radio days and radio nights:  Radio days and radio nights 1930-1948- Radio Years Integral part of American Life Growth of Radio:  Growth of Radio 1930- 618 radio stations, 40 million dollars in advertising. 1948-1,104 stations, 506 million dollars in advertising. Growth:  Growth With growth came new problems Content FM frequency, demonstrated 1933-less prone to static, but was slow developing. NBC’s 2 networks. FCC ruled it was monopolistic. NBC sold its Blue network to Edwin Noble-ABC Impact:  Impact Number 1 source of home entertainment Dependable and trustable medium FDR used it for political advancements. Fireside Chats. Orson Welles- War of the Worlds Kate Smith - Pledge Drive for 17 hours to raise $ for war bonds-39 million Programs:  Programs Radio Programs were primarily music/variety programs. Comedy, Drama, and News. WWII brought many news shows. Impact:  Impact Radio took advertising revenue away from the newspaper and magazine industries. Television:  Television RCA showcased television at the 1939 World Fair in New York. Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth were behind this invention Zworykin- “iconoscope” Farnsworth-” image dissector” Television :  Television development was slowed by the war. WWII helped develp better technology for television like WWI helped radio. 1948 TV on its way!!!!!!!! Radio helped shape T.V- networks, advertising, content. Freeze:  Freeze 1948 The FCC declared a feeze on new TV Station applications while it studied the Future of TV. 1950 105 station were broadcasting. AT&T provided land lines for the networks-coast to coast hookup 1951 end of freeze- 6th report. 6th Report:  6th Report A table of channel assignments was constructed. To accommodate the hundreds of applicants seeking tv licenses, the FCC opened up new channels(14-69) in the ultra high frequency. Most sets did not get UHF without a special antenna Guidelines were drawn for color TV Frieda Hennock- first woman FCC commissioner- noncommercial TV stations- 242 in total UHF V.S VHF:  UHF V.S VHF UHF-14-69 VHF-2-13 T.V era:  T.V era From 1948-1952- Freeze era T.V’s golden age. 1952- The Today Show I love Lucy premiered - relationship with Hollywood. T.V’s effects on Radio:  T.V’s effects on Radio Changed Network broadcasting. Talent moved to t.V. Radio was reduced to short newscasts. took radio 30 years to recover from the shift. Specialized broadcasting. DJ’s developed and top 40 format. Brought Radio and Record industry closer together-record sales tripled from 1954-60 Radio became dependent on local advertisers. New Technology:  New Technology Videotape recording-1956 Color T.V 1954 1961 - Congress passed the All Channel Receiver bill- allowed UHF tv stations to grow. 1962- Telestar 1950’s CATV became popular in rural areas-UHF stations got a boost with cable Public TV:  Public TV Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 was passed and created the corporation of Public Broadcasting in order to channel money into programming and station development. CPB created PBS to manage the network interconnection between the public stations. some programs developed by pbs: Masterpiece Theater, Sesame Street, The Electric Company... Effects of violence:  Effects of violence Began in 1960’s with the Untouchables Cigarette advertisements were banned from T.V in 1971 The competition:  The competition With the growth of cable, came competition Premium channels such as HBO, MTV, and ESPN. Another competitor was the VHS. Fox premiered in 1987 and after acquiring rights to baseball and football, and developing shows like the simpsons, x-files, arrested development, etc. Grew in force UPN-Paramount, WB- Warner Bros., and Pax. entered the scene. Mergers:  Mergers Big corporations are in control of broadcast T.V 1995 Disney merges with ABC 1986 GE acquired NBC 2004 Universal Merges with NBC Viacom and CBS merged in the late 1990’s 2000 America online merged with Time Warner PBS:  PBS Lack of government funding and growth of cable networks has hurt the growth of PBS. programming thrugh decades:  programming thrugh decades 1970’s- Continuing Episodics- Soaps on Prime Time- Dynasty and Dallas 1980’s- warm wholesome family situation comedy- Cosby show 1990’s- Magazine shows- 60 minutes, and Dateline. Sitcoms- Seinfeld, Cheers, and Friends turn of century- Reality shows Satellite news gathering:  Satellite news gathering 1980’s - Reporters can travel anywhere and send back report. Networks can save $ by using one story- swap footage satellite broadcasts:  satellite broadcasts TVRO and DBS grew like cable did. Radio in Video Age:  Radio in Video Age Radio became portable in 60’s with the transistor- used instead of vacuum tube With this Sonly marketed the Walkman FM- slowly but surely! stereo, AM stations hard to come by, fM brought new formats. (rock, country, easy) Radio networks:  Radio networks 1960’s hard times for Radio networks. ABC split into four specialized services Entertainment, Information, Contemporary, and FM. NBC, CBS, and Mutual soon followed suit. Syndicated programs also helped build the audience. Fine-tuning:  Fine-tuning Radio stations have turned to very defined formats that target very specific groups. Consolidation:  Consolidation The 1996 Telecommunications Act lifted the national ownership limits in radio stations. Clear Channel is the biggest radio company owning more than 1,200 stations in 190 markets. Viacom, Cox, Entercom, and ABC follow. 21 Century:  21 Century Economic recession and terrorist attacks dried advertising dollars. Sirius and XM - Satellite services Digital Signal movement. Act of 1996 ruled that all broadcasters were to begin sending digital signals by 2002. The deadline was unrealistic Tivo! Internet

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