CH07 R

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Information about CH07 R

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Michelino



Chapter 7:  Chapter 7 Attitudes Attitudes:  Attitudes A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object. An attitude is: Lasting because it tends to endure over time. General because it applies to more than a momentary event. Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as: Very product-specific behaviors, and More general consumption-related behaviors. The Functions of Attitudes:  The Functions of Attitudes Ego-Defensive Protect Person From Threats By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefits it Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging. The ABC Model of Attitudes:  The ABC Model of Attitudes Affect Way a Consumer Feels Behavior Person’s Intentions to Do Cognition Consumer’s Beliefs Components of an Attitude Hierarchies of Effects:  Standard Learning Hierarchy Beliefs Affect Behavior ATTITUDE Based on Cognitive Information Processing Hierarchies of Effects Low-Involvement Hierarchy Beliefs Affect Behavior ATTITUDE Based on Behavioral Learning Processes Experiential Hierarchy Beliefs Affect Behavior ATTITUDE Based on Hedonic Consumption Attitudes Toward the Advertisement:  Attitudes Toward the Advertisement The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion. Determinants Include: Attitude Toward Advertiser Mood Evoked by the Ad Degree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers’ Arousal Levels Evaluations of the Ad Execution Itself Forming Attitudes:  Forming Attitudes An Attitude can form in several different ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects and how the attitude is learned. It can occur because of: Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle. Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced. Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures. Forming Attitudes:  Forming Attitudes Levels of Commitment to an Attitude Internalization Identification Compliance Degree of Commitment The Consistency Principle Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements. Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values:  States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance”. Theory focuses on situations in which two Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one another. Cognitive Elements can be something that a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings. Dissonance reduction can occur either by eliminating, adding, or changing elements. Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values Social Judgment Theory :  Social Judgment Theory Attitude Anchor Assimilation Contrast Balance Theory:  Balance Theory A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - ) An Attitude Object Some Other Person or Object Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance. Triad Multiattribute Attitude Models :  Multiattribute Attitude Models Models Assume That a Consumer’s Attitude (Evaluation) of an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has About Several or Many Attributes of the Object. The Fishbein Model:  The Fishbein Model The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes: Salient Beliefs About the Object That Are Considered During Evaluation Object-Attitude Linkages, or The Probability That a Particular Object Has an Important Attribute Evaluation of Each of the Important Attributes Fishbein Model:  Fishbein Model Formed by integrating (summing) the separate evaluations of the salient beliefs (ei), weighted by the strength of each beliefs (bi), to create an overall evaluation or attitude (Ao). Ao = Sbiei How Beliefs Are Acquired:  How Beliefs Are Acquired Direct experience with product. Information processing information from outside sources (friends) Vicarious experience Inferences Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model:  Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model Attitude-Behavior Relationship:  Attitude-Behavior Relationship Weak empirical relationship between attitude and behavior Why? Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment. Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior:  Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior Intentions Versus Behavior Social Pressure Attitude Toward Buying The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the “Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes the Following Modifications: The Theory of Reasoned Action:  The Theory of Reasoned Action Reflects the assumption that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative actions and choose the behavior which leads to the most desirable consequences. Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action :  Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action Attitude Accessibility Theory of Trying:  Theory of Trying States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal. Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As: Tracking Attitudes Over Time:  Tracking Attitudes Over Time Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include: Changes in Different Age Groups Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects Scenarios About the Future Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy Identification of Change Agents

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