ch02exoh

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Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Mahugani

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Clostridium botulinum:  Clostridium botulinum Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, motile GPR Source: Soils, sediments, intestinal tracts of fish/mammals, gills and viscera of crabs and other shellfish Illness: Intoxication (heat-labile neurotoxin) Symptoms: Weakness, vertigo, double vision, difficulty in speaking, swallowing and breathing, respiratory paralysis Foods: Semi-preserved seafood, improperly canned foods Transmission: Spores present in raw foods Control: Proper canning, aw <0.93, pH <4.7 Clostridium perfringens:  Clostridium perfringens Bacteria: Anaerobic, spore-forming, nonmotile GPR Source: Soil, dust, intestinal tract of animals and humans Illness: Infection (toxin released on sporulation) Symptoms: Intense abdominal cramps and diarrhea Foods: Temperature abuse of prepared foods such as meats, meat products, and gravy Transmission: Spores present in raw foods Control: Proper time/temperature control; preventing cross-contamination of cooked foods Bacillus cereus:  Bacillus cereus Bacteria: Facultatively aerobic, spore-forming, motile GPR Source: Soil, dust, raw foods Illness: 1) diarrheal type (infection, heat-labile toxin); 2) emetic type (intoxication, heat-stable toxin) Symptoms: 1) profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal pain; 2) vomiting, nausea Foods: 1) vegetables, salads, meats, casseroles; 2) rice and pasta Transmission: Spores present in raw foods Control: time/temperature; reheat cooked foods to >165o F Brucella abortis, B. suis:  Brucella abortis, B. suis Bacteria: Aerobic, nonmotile, GNR Source: Domestic and wild animals Illness: Infection (undulant fever) Symptoms: Sweats, chills, weakness, aches, joint pains Foods: Raw milk, infected meat Transmission: Infected animals Control: Pasteurize milk, cook meats Campylobacter jejuni:  Campylobacter jejuni Bacteria: Microaerophilic, motile GNR Source: Intestines of poultry, livestock, domestic animals; streams and ponds Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis) Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, weakness, fever Foods: undercooked chicken & hamburger, raw milk & clams Transmission: Contaminated foods & water; cross-contamination; person to person Control: Proper cooking, proper hand and equipment washing, sanitary food handling practices Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7:  Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bacteria: Facultative anaerobic, motile or nonmotile GNR Source: Intestines of animals and poultry Illness: Hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) Symptoms: HC) diarrhea & vomiting, HUS) diarrhea & acute renal failure, TTP) diarrhea, GI hemorrhage, blood clots in brain Foods: Meat, poultry, potatoes, raw milk Transmission: Cross-contamination, sewage pollution of coastal waters Control: Proper cooking, temperature control, preventing cross-contamination, proper personal hygiene Listeria monocytogenes:  Listeria monocytogenes Bacteria: Microaerophilic, motile, GPR Source: Widespread in the environment Illness: Infection Symptoms: Mild flu-like symptoms to meningitis, abortions, septicemia, and death Foods: Coleslaw, raw milk, Mexican style soft cheese, smoked mussels Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked food, contaminated raw foods Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination, pasteurizing milk Salmonella spp.:  Salmonella spp. Bacteria: Facultative anaerobic, motile, GNR Source: Intestine of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis) Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever Foods: Poultry, poultry salads, meats, dairy products, egg products Transmission: Cross-contamination, human contamination, sewage pollution of coastal waters Control: Proper cooking, temperature control, preventing cross-contamination, personal hygiene Shigella spp.:  Shigella spp. Bacteria: Facultative anaerobic, nonmotile, GNR Source: Intestine of humans and primates Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis) Symptoms: Mild diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, severs fluid loss Foods: Water, milk, salads, lettuce, watermelon, beans, spaghetti Transmission: Contamination from workers, sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination of seafood after harvest Control: Personal hygiene, preventing human waste contamination of water supplies, preventing ill people or carriers from working with food Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus:  Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, nonmotile, GPC Source: Humans and animals, air, dust, sewage Illness: Intoxication (gastroenteritis) Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea, fever Foods: Meats, poultry, eggs, dairy products, seafood Transmission: Contamination of food by workers or equipment Control: Time/temperature control, personal hygiene, sanitation Vibrio cholerae:  Vibrio cholerae Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, curved GNR Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries, bays and brackish water Illness: Infection (cholera or gastroenteritis) Symptoms: 01: watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps; non-01: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever Foods: Molluscan shellfish Transmission: Contaminated water, cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of contaminated raw seafood Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination, Harvesting from approved waters Vibrio parahaemolyticus:  Vibrio parahaemolyticus Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, curved GNR Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries and other coastal areas throughout the world Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis) Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache Foods: Raw, improperly cooked, or cooked and contaminated fish and shellfish Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Vibrio vulnificus:  Vibrio vulnificus Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, curved GNR Source: Naturally occurring marine bacterium Illness: Infection (wounds, gastroenteritis, septicemia) Symptoms: Skin lesions, septic shock, fever, chills, nausea Foods: Raw oysters, clams and crabs Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Yersinia enterocolitica:  Yersinia enterocolitica Bacteria: Facultative aerobic, motile, GNR Source: Soil, water, domesticated and wild animals Illness: Infection (gastroenteritis) Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever Foods: Meats, oysters, fish, raw milk Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked food, poor sanitation, time/temperature abuse Control: Preventing cross-contamination, proper sanitation and food handling practices Viruses:  Viruses Hepatitis A and E Norwalk virus group Hepatitis A:  Hepatitis A Source: Human intestine Illness: Infection Symptoms: Fever, malaise, nausea, abdominal discomfort, jaundice Foods: Cold cuts, sandwiches, fruits, fruit juices, milk and milk products, vegetables, salads, shellfish, iced drinks Transmission: Fecal contamination of food or water Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination, good sanitation, employee hygiene Norwalk Virus Group:  Norwalk Virus Group Source: Human intestines Illness: Infection Symptoms: Self-limiting and mild; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever Foods: Salad ingredients, raw or insufficiently cooked clams and oysters Transmission: Fecal contamination of food or water Control: Proper cooking, good sanitation, employee hygiene, preventing cross-contamination Anisakis simplex:  Anisakis simplex Parasite: Nematode (herring worm) Source: Raw or undercooked fish (salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel, squid, anchovies) Illness: Infection Symptoms: Tickling sensation in throat to acute abdominal pain and nausea Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish Control: Proper cooking of fish, commercial freezing of fish to be consumed raw Ascaris lumbricoides:  Ascaris lumbricoides Parasite: Nematode Source: Human intestines, insufficiently treated sewage-fertilizer Illness: Infection Symptoms: Vague digestive tract discomfort, migration of nematode into throat/mouth/nose Transmission: Infected food handlers, sewage fertilized fruits and vegetables Control: Good sanitation, employee hygiene, proper treatment of sewage used for fertilizer Pseudoterranova dicepiens:  Pseudoterranova dicepiens Parasite: Nematode (codworm) Source: Raw or undercooked fish (cod, pollock, haddock) Illness: Infection Symptoms: Tickling sensation in throat to acute abdominal pain and nausea Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish Control: Proper cooking of fish, commercial freezing of fish to be consumed raw Trichinella spiralis:  Trichinella spiralis Parasite: Nematode Source: Pork and bear meat Illness: Infection (Trichinosis) Symptoms: Fever, muscle soreness, pain and swelling around the eyes. Chest pain may be experienced since the parasite may become imbedded in the diaphragm. Transmission: Raw or improperly cooked infected pork or bear meat Control: Thoroughly cook pork and other potentially infected meats, cook garbage fed to hogs, avoid cross-contamination of beef with pork Diphyllobothrium latum:  Diphyllobothrium latum Parasite: Tapeworm Source: Raw freshwater or anadromous fish Illness: Infection Symptoms: Abdominal distention, flatulence, intermittent abdominal cramping and diarrhea. Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish Control: Proper cooking of fish Taenia solium, T. saginata:  Taenia solium, T. saginata Parasite: Tapeworm (T. solium, pork tapeworm; T. Saginata, beef tapeworm) Source: Swine or beef Illness: Infection; worms attach to lining of small intestine and can grow large enough to block the intestinal tract Symptoms: Nausea, epigastric fullness, and vomiting. Central nervous system disorders may arise in intermediate hosts of T. solium Transmission: Raw or improperly cooked infected pork or beef Control: Proper cooking of pork and beef Cryptosporidium parvum:  Cryptosporidium parvum Parasite: Protozoa Source: Cows, goats, sheep, deer, elk Illness: Infection (intestinal, tracheal, or pulmonary cryptosporidiosis) Symptoms: Intestinal - severe watery diarrhea or asymptomatic; pulmonary and tracheal - coughing and low-grade fever Transmission: Contaminated food handler, person-to-person, contaminated water supplies, salad vegetables fertilized with manure Control: Personal hygiene, prohibit fertilizing salad vegetables with manure, boil or filter contaminated water Entamoeba histolytica:  Entamoeba histolytica Parasite: Protozoa Source: Intestinal tract of humans and primates Illness: Infection Symptoms: 1) none, 2) vague gastrointestinal distress, or 3) dysentery Transmission: Fecal contamination of drinking water and foods, person-to-person, infected food handlers Control: Good sanitation, employee hygiene Giardia lamblia:  Giardia lamblia Parasite: Protozoa Source: Domestic and wild animals Illness: Infection Symptoms: Diarrhea (the most common cause of non-bacterial diarrhea in North America) Transmission: Contaminated water, infected food handlers, contaminated vegetables eaten raw Control: Water treatment, good sanitation, employee hygiene, good food handling practices Types of Naturally Occurring Chemical Hazards:  Types of Naturally Occurring Chemical Hazards Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin) Scombrotoxin Ciguatoxin Shellfish toxins Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)/Domoic Acid Other marine toxins Gempylotoxin Tetrodotoxin Scombrotoxin (Histamine):  Scombrotoxin (Histamine) Toxin: Histamine Source: Improperly handled (time/temperature abuse) mahi mahi, tuna, bluefish, sardines, amberjack, mackerel Range: Worldwide Symptoms: Metallic or peppery taste, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, swelling and flushing of face, headache, dizziness, heart palpitations, hives, rapid and weak pulse, thirst, difficulty swallowing Control: Proper chilling and temperature control after capture FDA Guideline: 50 ppm histamine in raw, frozen tuna and mahi mahi; canned tuna; and related species Ciguatera Fish Poisoning:  Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Toxin: Ciguatoxins (4 toxins) Source: Certain species of tropical and subtropical fish feeding on algae (Gambierdiscus spp.) Range: Tropical and subtropical waters worldwide Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abnormal or impaired skin sensations, vertigo, lack of muscle coordination, cold/hot sensation reversal, muscular pain and itching Control: No tests available; obtain fish from safe harvest areas FDA Guideline: None established Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning:  Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Saxitoxins (18 toxins) Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Alexandrium, Pyrodinium, Gymnodinium spp.) Range: Tropical to temperate waters worldwide Symptoms: Numbness and burning or tingling sensation of lips and tongue spreading to face and fingertips, general lack of muscle coordination in arms, legs, neck Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest FDA Guideline: 0.8 ppm saxitoxin equivalent (80ug/100g) in all fish Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning:  Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Okadaic acid and its derivatives Source: Molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Dinophysis and Prorocentrum spp.) Range: Japan, southeast Asia, Scandinavia, western Europe, Chile, New Zealand, eastern Canada Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest FDA Guideline: 0.2 ppm okadaic acid plus 35-methyl okadaic acid (DXT 1) in all fish Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning:  Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Brevetoxins (3 toxins) Source: Molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Gymnodinium breve) Range: Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic coast in U.S. New Zealand Symptoms: Tingling of the face and spreading to other parts of the body, cold/hot sensation reversal dilation of pupils, feeling of inebriation Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest FDA Guideline: 0.8 ppm brevetoxin-2 equivalent (20 mouse units/100g) in clams, mussels and oysters Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning:  Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Domoic acid Source: Molluscan shellfish (mussels) feeding on algae (Pseudonitzschia spp.), viscera of Dungeness crab and anchovies Range: Northeast and northwest coasts of North America Symptoms: Intestinal distress, facial grimace or chewing motion, short-term memory loss, difficulty breathing Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest FDA Guideline: 20 ppm domoic acid in all fish; 30 ppm domoic acid in viscera of Dungeness crab Gempylotoxin:  Gempylotoxin Toxin: Oil contained in the flesh and bones of specific species Source: Gemplids, escolars or pelagic mackerels (escolar; oilfish, castor oil fish or purgative fish; snek) Range: Almost worldwide Symptoms: Diarrhea, generally without pain or cramping Control: Avoid specific fish species FDA Guideline: Escolar should not be imported Tetrodotoxin:  Tetrodotoxin Toxin: Tetrodotoxin Source: About 80 species of puffer fish, blowfish or fugu Range: Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans Symptoms: Numbness and tingling of the mouth, weakness, paralysis, decreased blood pressure, quickened and weakened pulse. Death can occur within 30 minutes. Control: Do not eat puffer fish or avoid improperly prepared pufferfish FDA Guideline: Puffer fish may not be imported except under strict certification requirements and specific authorization from FDA Tetramine:  Tetramine Toxin: Tetramine Source: Salivary gland of whelk (Neptunia spp.) Range: Primarily the Sea of Japan Symptoms: Intense headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting Control: Remove salivary glands before consumption FDA Guideline: Remove the salivary glands of Neptunia spp.

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