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Published on January 15, 2009

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Chapter 2: The Project Management and Information Technology Context : Chapter 2: The Project Management and Information Technology Context Information Technology Project Management,Fourth Edition Phases of Project Development ITFN 2123 -- Thursday, January 18 Today’s Schedule : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 2 Today’s Schedule Assignment #1 Posted, Due Monday, Jan 22 Phases of Project Development Uniqueness of IT Projects For Tuesday, January 23 Read Chapter 3 to pg 87 (Project Planning) Read for process, documents and deliverables, not details of the case study Tuesday’s Learning Objectives : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 3 Tuesday’s Learning Objectives Describe the systems view of project management and how it applies to information technology projects. Understand organizations, including the four frames, organizational structures, and organizational culture. Explain why stakeholder management and top management commitment are critical for a project’s success. Thursday’s Learning Objectives : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 4 Thursday’s Learning Objectives Understand the concept of a project phase and the project life cycle and distinguish between project development and product development. Discuss the unique attributes and diverse nature of information technology projects. Understanding Organizations : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 5 Understanding Organizations Ten Characteristics ofOrganizational Culture : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 6 Ten Characteristics ofOrganizational Culture Member identity* Group emphasis* People focus Unit integration* Control Risk tolerance* Reward criteria* Conflict tolerance* Means-ends orientation Open-systems focus* *Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where these characteristics are highly prevalent and where the other characteristics are balanced. Stakeholder Management : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 7 Stakeholder Management Project managers must take time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders. Using the four frames of organizations can help you meet stakeholder needs and expectations. Senior executives and top management are very important stakeholders. Figure 2-1. Three Sphere Model for Systems Management : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 8 Figure 2-1. Three Sphere Model for Systems Management From Tuesday’s Teams … : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 9 From Tuesday’s Teams … Select a recent change (or proposed change) at Clayton or Atlanta? As of Jan 1, 2007, Joshua's Law - Driver's Ed req'd to get license at 16! But Driver Ed not available in H.S. Clayton State University changing class schedules from M-W to M-W-F Building a new student activity center Register and pay for Spring by Dec 8 HUB support hours and appointment process Analyzing this change … : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 10 Analyzing this change … List at least 5 stakeholders in this change and at least one potential “project sponsor” of this change. List at least 2 issues surrounding this change or proposal for each of the 3 spheres: business, organization and technology. Describe 2 strategies to manage stakeholders. Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 11 Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle A project life cycle is a collection of project phases that defines: What work will be performed in each phase. What deliverables will be produced and when. Who is involved in each phase. How management will control and approve work produced in each phase. A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project. Project Phases in Life Cycle : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 12 Project Phases in Life Cycle In the early phases: Resource needs are usually lowest. The level of uncertainty (risk) is highest. Project stakeholders have the greatest opportunity to influence the project. In the middle phases: The certainty of completing a project increases. More resources are needed. In the final phase: The focus is on ensuring that project requirements were met. The sponsor approves completion of the project. Figure 2-3. Phases of the Traditional Project Life Cycle : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 13 Figure 2-3. Phases of the Traditional Project Life Cycle Product Life Cycles : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 14 Product Life Cycles A systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing information systems. Systems development projects can follow: Predictive life cycle: The scope of the project can be clearly articulated and the schedule and cost can be predicted. Adaptive Software Development (ASD) life cycle: Projects are mission driven and component based, and use time-based cycles to meet target dates. Choosing the Predictive vs. Adaptive Approach to the SDLC : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 15 Choosing the Predictive vs. Adaptive Approach to the SDLC (Figure 2-1) Information System Development Phases : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 16 Information System Development Phases “Waterfall” Approach to the SDLC : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 17 “Waterfall” Approach to the SDLC Modified Waterfall Approachwith Overlapping Phases : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 18 Modified Waterfall Approachwith Overlapping Phases The Spiral Life Cycle Model : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 19 The Spiral Life Cycle Model (Figure 2-6) Predictive Life Cycle Models : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 20 Predictive Life Cycle Models Waterfall model: Has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and support. Spiral model: Shows that software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approach. Incremental build model: Provides for progressive development of operational software. Prototyping model: Used for developing prototypes to clarify user requirements. Rapid Application Development (RAD) model: Used to produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality. Adaptive Life Cycle Models : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 21 Adaptive Life Cycle Models Extreme programming (XP): Developers program in pairs and must write the tests for their own code. XP teams include developers, managers, and users. Scrum: Iterative development in which repetitions are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty days. Teams meet each day for a short meeting, called a scrum, to decide what to accomplish that day. For object-oriented projects and requires strong leadership to coordinate the work. The Importance of Project Phases and Management Reviews : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 22 The Importance of Project Phases and Management Reviews A project should successfully pass through each of the project phases in order to continue on to the next. Management reviews, also called phase exits or kill points, should occur after each phase to evaluate the project’s progress, likely success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals. What Went Right? : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 23 What Went Right? "The real improvement that I saw was in our ability to?in the words of Thomas Edison?know when to stop beating a dead horse…Edison's key to success was that he failed fairly often; but as he said, he could recognize a dead horse before it started to smell...In information technology we ride dead horses?failing projects?a long time before we give up. But what we are seeing now is that we are able to get off them; able to reduce cost overrun and time overrun. That's where the major impact came on the success rate.”* Many organizations, like Huntington Bancshares, Inc., use an executive steering committee to help keep projects on track. *Cabanis, Jeannette, “A Major Impact: The Standish Group's Jim Johnson On Project Management and IT Project Success,” PM Network, PMI (September 1998), p. 7. The Context of IT Projects : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 24 The Context of IT Projects IT projects can be very diverse in terms of size, complexity, products produced, application area, and resource requirements. IT project team members often have diverse backgrounds and skill sets. IT projects use diverse technologies that change rapidly. Even within one technology area, people must be highly specialized. Chapter Summary : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 25 Chapter Summary Project managers need to take a systems approach when working on projects. Organizations have four different frames: structural, human resources, political, and symbolic. The structure and culture of an organization have strong implications for project managers. Projects should successfully pass through each phase of the project life cycle. Project managers need to consider several factors due to the unique context of information technology projects. For Tuesday, January 23 : Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition 26 For Tuesday, January 23 Assignment #1 Posted, Due Monday, Jan 22 For Tuesday, January 23 Read Chapter 3 to pg 87 (Project Planning) Read for process, documents and deliverables, not details of the case study

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