Published on January 11, 2008
IMMIGRANTS & URBANIZATION: IMMIGRANTS & URBANIZATION Chapter 7 THE NEW IMMIGRANTS: THE NEW IMMIGRANTS Section 1 Where did the immigrants come from?: Where did the immigrants come from? B/w 1870 & 1920, about 20 million Europeans immigrated to the U.S. Many from eastern & southern Europe. Why did immigrants come here?: Why did immigrants come here? Escape religious persecution Improve their economic situation Experience greater freedom in the U.S. Most European immigrants arrived on the East Coast. Smaller # of immigrants came from Asia: Smaller # of immigrants came from Asia Arrived on the West Coast About 200,000 Chinese came b/w 1851 & 1883. Many Chinese helped build the 1st transcontinental railroad. Slide7: Several thousand Japanese immigrants came when the U.S. annexed Hawaii in 1898. FROM THE CARIBBEAN SEA…: FROM THE CARIBBEAN SEA… From 1880 to 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, & other islands. Many left b/c jobs were scarce. MEXICANS COME TO U.S. TOO: MEXICANS COME TO U.S. TOO Some became U.S. citizens when the nation acquired Mexican territory in 1848 as a result of the Mexican War. About 1 million Mexicans arrived b/w 1910 to 1930 to escape turmoil in their country. ELLIS ISLAND: ELLIS ISLAND Most European immigrants to the U.S. arrived in New York. Had to pass through immigration station located on Ellis Island in Hew York Harbor PASSING INSPECTION…: PASSING INSPECTION… Officials at Ellis Island decided whether the immigrants could enter the country. If had serious health problems or a contagious disease was sent home INSPECTION STATIONS: INSPECTION STATIONS ANGEL ISLAND: ANGEL ISLAND Immigration station for the Asian immigrants arriving on the West Coast. Located in San Francisco. Inspection process more difficult than on Ellis Island. Many immigrants settled in communities w/other immigrants from same country.: Many immigrants settled in communities w/other immigrants from same country. They also formed organizations to help each other. IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS: IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS America called a MELTING POT…. Fact that many cultures & races had blended . But, many immigrants refused to give up their culture…. Some Americans didn’t like so many immigrants living in the U.S.: Some Americans didn’t like so many immigrants living in the U.S. NATIVISM- Obvious preference for native-born Americans. Nativism gave rise to anti-immigrant groups. Also led to a demand for immigration restrictions. CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT1882: CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT 1882 Chinese immigrants worked for low wages. Labor groups pressured politicians to restrict Asian immigration. Banned all but a few Chinese immigrants. Not lifted until 1943. Chinese immigrants in a San Francisco naturalization class: Chinese immigrants in a San Francisco naturalization class GENTLEMEN’S AGREEMENT:: GENTLEMEN’S AGREEMENT: In San Francisco, all Chinese, Japanese, & Korean children placed in special Asian schools….led to anti-American riots in Japan. In exchange for President Roosevelt persuading San Francisco officials to stop separation policy, Japan agreed to limit emigration to U.S. CHALLENGES OF URBANIZATION: CHALLENGES OF URBANIZATION Section 2 URBANIZATION: URBANIZATION Urbanization is the rapid growth of cities. Many immigrants settled in cities in the early 1900’s. Settled mostly in Northeast & Midwest cities to find jobs in the factories & businesses. By 1910, immigrants made up over half of the populations of 18 major American cities.: By 1910, immigrants made up over half of the populations of 18 major American cities. AMERICANIZATION MOVEMENT: AMERICANIZATION MOVEMENT Way for immigrants to learn about U.S. Schools taught them English, American history & government…helped them become citizens. "Many Peoples, One Nation" --slogan of the Committee for Immigrants in America, 1915 OTHERS ALSO MOVED TO CITIES…: OTHERS ALSO MOVED TO CITIES… Farmers who lost their jobs to machines. African American farmers from the South…B/w 1890 & 1910, about 200,000 moved to cities in the North. Called the “Great Migration” URBAN PROBLEMS…: URBAN PROBLEMS… Shortage in housing. New types of housing so people could live in a small amount of space. 1)Row house – Single family dwelling that shared side walls w/other houses. 2)Tenement – Multifamily urban houses often overcrowded & unsanitary. MASS TRANSIT: MASS TRANSIT Cities developed mass transit – transportation systems designed to move large # of people along fixed routes. SANITATION PROBLEMS:: SANITATION PROBLEMS: Cities had hard time supplying safe drinking water. People threw garbage out their windows. Sewage flowed in streets. By 1900, many cities built sewers & created sanitation departments. Crime & Fire also problems.: Crime & Fire also problems. REFORMERS HELP THE POOR:: REFORMERS HELP THE POOR: Social Gospel movement…Early reform program. Leaders preached that people reached salvation by helping the poor. They established Settlement Houses. Located in slums. Help & friendship for poor & immigrants. JANE ADDAMS: JANE ADDAMS Many settlement houses run by women. Jane Addams was well-known social reformer. Established the HULL HOUSE in Chicago POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE: POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE Section 3 POLITICAL MACHINES: POLITICAL MACHINES During late 1800’s, many cities run by a Political machine. This was an organized group, headed by a city boss, that controlled activities of a political party in a city. Offered services to voters & businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Many Political Bosses were Corrupt…: Many Political Bosses were Corrupt… HOW? GRAFT: GRAFT Many Bosses got rich through GRAFT-the illegal use of political influence for personal gain. To win elections, some filled the list of eligible voters w/names of dogs, children, & the dead. KICKBACKS: KICKBACKS Workers on city construction projects would charge a higher price & then “kick back” part of the fee to the bosses. Bosses also taking bribes from businesses in return for allowing illegal or unsafe activities. BOSS TWEED& TAMMANY HALL: BOSS TWEED & TAMMANY HALL William Marcy Tweed, a.k.a. “Boss Tweed”, one of the most powerful political bosses. Became head of Tammany Hall, New York City’s most powerful Democratic machine. TWEED RING: TWEED RING Group of corrupt politicians led by Boss Tweed. A political cartoonist, made fun of Tweed in newspapers. Authorities broke up the Tweed Ring in 1871….Tweed & many of his followers sentenced to prison. CIVIL SERVICE VS. PATRONAGE: CIVIL SERVICE VS. PATRONAGE Patronage- Giving of government jobs to people of the same party who had helped a candidate get elected. Civil Service- Government jobs. Reformers called for a merit system. Civil service jobs would go to the most qualified, regardless of political views. PRESIDENT HAYES: PRESIDENT HAYES President Rutherford B. Hayes attempted to reform civil service. Some members of Republican party objected. Hayes decided not to run for reelection in 1880 REPUBLICAN PARTY DIVIDED: REPUBLICAN PARTY DIVIDED Stalwarts opposed changed in patronage system. Reformers supported changing the system. Republican Party settles on James A. Garfield, an independent candidate.: Republican Party settles on James A. Garfield, an independent candidate. James A. Garfield Twentieth President 1881 President Garfield Assassinated!!!: President Garfield Assassinated!!! Garfield turned out to have ties to reformers…. Shortly after election, he was shot by a Stalwart! It took more than 2 months for President Garfield to die.: It took more than 2 months for President Garfield to die. V.P. Chester A. Arthur succeeded Garfield. He turned reformer when he became president. PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT OF 1883: PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT OF 1883 Created a civil service commission to give government jobs based on merit, not politics….Helped to reform civil service. Business Buys Influence: Business Buys Influence Politicians no longer had jobs to offer. Had trouble seeking $ from supporters. Many turned to wealthy business leaders for support. TARIFFS: TARIFFS Tariff is a tax placed on goods coming into or going out of a country. Most Americans believed tariffs were necessary to protect U.S. industries from foreign competition. Tariffs did cause prices to rise. For 12 years, Tariffs were a key issue in presidential elections.: For 12 years, Tariffs were a key issue in presidential elections. President Grover Cleveland: President Grover Cleveland Democratic president who tried, but failed to reduce tariffs. President Benjamin Harrison1890: President Benjamin Harrison 1890 Republican who was supported by big business. Signed the MCKINLEY TARIFF ACT into law. Tariffs were raised to their highest level ever. Cleveland defeats Harrison in 1892 to become President again!: Cleveland defeats Harrison in 1892 to become President again! He was unsuccessful in reducing tariffs. Personal: • First Lady: Frances Cleveland, Wife • Wife's Maiden Name: Frances Folsom Cleveland • Number of Children: 5 • Education Level: No College • Religion: Presbyterian • Profession: Clerk, Teacher, Lawyer COMING NEXT….: COMING NEXT…. LIFE at the Turn of the 20th Century!!