Ch 5: Methods pt 2

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Information about Ch 5: Methods pt 2

Published on December 7, 2008

Author: wessellr



Slide 1: Understanding What Biopsychologists Do Chapter 5 The Research Methods of Biopsychology Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology : Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology Neuropsychological Testing Time-consuming – only conducted on a small portion of those with brain damage Assists in diagnosing neural disorders Serves as a basis for counseling/caring Provides information on effectiveness and side effects of treatment Approaches to Neuropsychological Testing : Approaches to Neuropsychological Testing Single-test Used to differentiate brain damage from functional (psychological) causes Standardized-test-battery Same goal as single-test approach Halstead-Reitan, for example Customized-test-battery Now predominant Characterizes nature of psychological deficits Customized-Test-Battery Approach : Customized-Test-Battery Approach Began to be used in the 1960s Goal is to characterize the nature of the deficits seen in the brain-damaged patient Begin with a general test and then follow with tests designed to explore the nature of the observed problems Potential Components of the Initial Common Test Battery : Potential Components of the Initial Common Test Battery Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS, an IQ test Often fails to detect memory deficits Token test Can detect language-related deficits Language lateralization – used to identify language-dominant hemisphere Sodium amytal – anesthetize one hemisphere Dichotic listening – ear contralateral to dominant hemisphere shows superior hearing ability Tests of Specific Neuro-psychological Function : Tests of Specific Neuro-psychological Function Memory – exploring nature of deficits Short-term, long-term, or both? Anterograde or retrograde? Semantic or episodic? Explicit or implicit? (repetition priming tests) Language – problems of phonology, syntax, or semantics Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) : Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) A test sensitive to frontal lobe damage Figure 5.21, p. 121 Cognitive Neuroscience – Assumptions : Cognitive Neuroscience – Assumptions Each complex cognitive process results from the combined activity of simple cognitive processes (constituent cognitive processes) Each complex cognitive process is mediated by neural activity in a particular area of the brain Cognitive Neuroscience : Cognitive Neuroscience Goal is to identify the parts of the brain that mediate various constituent cognitive processes Paired-image subtraction technique – compare PET or fMRI images during several different cognitive tasks Behavioral Paradigms : Behavioral Paradigms Procedures developed for the investigation of a particular behavioral phenomenon Assessment of species-common behaviors Traditional conditioning paradigms Seminatural animal learning paradigms Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors : Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors Assessment of behaviors displayed by all members of a species Open-field test – general activity Colony-intruder paradigm – aggression and defensive behavior Elevated plus maze – anxiety Tests of sexual behavior Rat Sexual Behavior Measures : Rat Sexual Behavior Measures Receptive female lordosis Lordosis quotient = lordosis/mounts Measures of male sexual behavior # mounts to intromission # intromissions to ejaculation Interval between ejaculation and next mount Traditional Conditioning Paradigms : Traditional Conditioning Paradigms Pavlovian conditioning Pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus Pavlov’s dogs Operant conditioning Reinforcement and punishment Self-stimulation Animal works for electrical stimulation Seminatural Learning Paradigms : Seminatural Learning Paradigms Mimic situations that an animal might encounter in its natural environment Conditioned taste aversion Pairing something that makes an animal ill (emetic) with a taste Challenged existing assumptions about conditioning Animals appear prepared to associate tastes and illness Seminatural Learning Paradigms (continued) : Seminatural Learning Paradigms (continued) Radial arm maze – tests spatial abilities Seminatural Learning Paradigms (continued) : Seminatural Learning Paradigms (continued) Morris water maze – tests spatial abilities Rat must find hidden platform in an opaque pool Conditioned defensive burying Following a single aversive stimulus delivered from an object, rats will spray bedding at the object Antianxiety drugs decrease the amount of burying behavior Daily Quiz 5 : Daily Quiz 5 Your text describes three categories of paradigms for studying the behavior of laboratory animals. Name and describe the three categories, and describe one example of each. Daily Quiz 5 : Daily Quiz 5 25% for naming and describing "paradigms for the assessment of species common behaviors" 25% for naming and describing "traditional conditioning paradigms" 25% for naming and describing "seminatural animal learning paradigms" 25% for naming and describing one test from each category

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