Ch.21.3--"The Struggle Intensifies"

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Information about Ch.21.3--"The Struggle Intensifies"

Published on February 26, 2014

Author: kbeacom


Ch. 21.3 pp. 709-714

Continue to add to your Ch. 21/Civil Rights Era timeline For each item: 1) define (2) explain its significance  A) Sit-ins  B) Freedom Rides  C) Integration at “Ole Miss”  D) Birmingham Marches  **Use the chart on top of p. 709 if you like**

Grew up in rural Centreville, MS Wondered about the “white folks’ secret” “Their homes were large and beautiful with indoor toilets and every other convenience that I knew of at the time.” “Every house I have ever lived in was a one or two-room shack with an outdoor toilet.”

Horrified by Emmett Till’s death While in college she joined the NAACP and worked with CORE and SNCC Took part in sit-ins in Jackson, MS and was jailed Her mom begged her stop out of fear Her brother was beaten and nearly lynched But she continued the fight at all costs Gains came at tremendous personal cost Challenging white supremacy often provoked an ugly and violent reaction

Moody (3rd from left) at a sit-in Jackson, MS in May of 1963 Hostile crowd responded by dumping food on activists

Tactic of sitting down at a segregated lunch counter or other public place; if refused service they stayed in place Started in 1943 in Chicago at Jack Spratt Coffee House Popular during early 1960s Forced business owners to decide between serving protesters or risking a disruption and loss of business

John Lewis of SNCC on his experiences from a sit-in in Nashville, TN: “A group of young white men came in and they started pulling and beating primarily the young women. They put lighted cigarettes down their backs, in their hair, and they were really beating people. In a short time police officials came in and placed all of us under arrest, and not a single member of the white group, the people that were opposing our sit-in, was arrested.”

MLK told students an arrest was a “badge of honor” By 1960, 70K+ students had participated in a sitin 3,600 had served jail time TIMELINE VIDEO

Boynton v. Virginia (1960)—Expanded ban on segregation on interstate buses; included bus station waiting rooms and restaurants that served interstate travelers 1961—CORE w/ help from SNCC carried out the Freedom Rides Designed to see if southern states would obey SC ruling

Riders left Washington, Firebombed at Anniston, DC on May 4, 1961 13 riders, both black and white 2 interstate buses Headed south, split up in Atlanta Alabama *See quote and picture on p. 711 Got out of bus alive, but were beaten by waiting crowd

James Farmer (leader of CORE) called for an end to the Freedom Rides SNCC leaders wanted to carry on Student activist Diane Nash in response to Farmer’s concerns: “If we let them stop us with violence, the movement is dead!...Your troops have been badly battered. Let us pick up the baton and run with it!”

Photos from burning bus in Anniston shocked the nation Violence intensified in Birmingham and Montgomery, Alabama Upon arriving in Jackson, Mississippi the Riders were arrested Volunteer Riders stepped in and were also arrested A secondary Freedom Rider movement began with 300 activists that same summer Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent federal marshals to protect them Eventually the ICC prohibited segregation in all interstate transportation


James Meredith, an African American Air Force vet, attempted to enroll to U. of Mississippi in 1961 He was denied access to the all-white school, but got legal help from the NAACP The SC supported Meredith’s entrance, but Governor Ross Barnett disregarded the ruling Pres. Kennedy used federal marshals to accompany Meredith to campus Crowds protested and attacked the marshals’ vehicles, violence ensued, two bystanders were killed and hundreds were injured Meredith continued to go to classes w/ aid of marshals

Meredith describing his experiences to the Saturday Evening Post (1962): “It hasn’t been all bad. Many students have spoke to me very pleasantly. They have stopped banging doors and throwing bottles into my dormitory now.”

 “One fellow from my home town sat down at my table in the cafeteria. ‘If you’re here to get an education, I’m for you,’ he said. ‘If you’re here to cause trouble, I’m against you.’ That seemed fair enough to me.”  Earned bachelor’s degree in 1963  VIDEO  OXFORD TOWN LYRICS

MLK & SCLC invited there When asked how long he in April 1963 would stay, King replied, until “Pharaoh lets God’s Birmingham’s population people go.” was 40% black Police commissioner King called it “the most “Bull” Connor replied, “I segregated city in America” got plenty of room in the Working w/ Rev. Fred jail.” Shuttlesworth, King called for boycotts

Started w/o violence; marches & sit-ins Courts ordered end to marches King decided to disobey orders Connor arrested King & others In “Letter from Birmingham Jail” King defended his actions After a week King was released from jail He called on young people to join movement

“Bull” Connor arrested 900+ young people Police used highpressure hoses and trained police dogs Protesters were also beaten w/ clubs

TV cameras brought national attention to Birmingham Eventually the city’s facilities were desegregated & fairer hiring practices were instituted

A few months after the settlement tragedy struck The 16th St. Baptist Church became a target  Training ground for activists  Meeting place for leaders, including MLK Bombed by members of the KKK on a Sunday Morning in Sept. 1963 Four girls were killed, and 22 children were injured Bombers were not caught until much later

Continue to add to your Ch. 21/Civil Rights Era timeline For each item: 1) define (2) explain its significance  A) Sit-ins  B) Freedom Rides  C) Integration at “Ole Miss”  D) Birmingham Marches  **Use the chart on top of p. 709 if you like**

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