Ch 2 pt 3: Mendelian Genetics

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Information about Ch 2 pt 3: Mendelian Genetics

Published on November 25, 2008

Author: wessellr


Slide 1: Thinking about the Biology of Behavior Chapter 2 Evolution, Genetics, and Experience Slide 2: Fundamental Genetics Dichotomous traits – occur in one form or the other, never in combination True-breeding lines – interbred members always produce offspring with the same trait Mendel studied dichotomous traits in true-breeding lines of pea plants Slide 3: Mendel’s Experiments Crossed a line bred true for brown seeds with one bred true for white First generation offspring all had brown seeds When the first generation were bred, the result was ¾ brown and ¼ white seeds Slide 4: Mendel’s Experiments (continued) True-breeding lines White (ww) Brown (BB) Brown was the dominant trait, appearing in all of the first generation offspring (Bw) Slide 5: Mendel’s Experiments (continued) Phenotype – observable traits Genotype – traits present in the genes If the dominant trait is present in the genotype (Bw), it will be observed in the phenotype (brown seeds) Slide 6: Mendel’s Experiments (continued) 1st generation Bw 2nd generation consists of individuals that are BB, Bw, and ww BB, Bw = brown ww = white Slide 7: Mendel’s Experiments (continued) Each inherited factor is a gene Two genes that control the same trait are called alleles Homozygous – 2 identical alleles (BB, ww) Heterozygous – 2 different alleles (Bw) Slide 8: Chromosomes: Reproduction, Linkage, and Recombination Genes are located on chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with an allele on each chromosome Meiosis – a process of cell division that yields cells with just 23 chromosomes Slide 9: Chromosomes: Reproduction, Linkage, and Recombination Gametes, egg cells and sperm cells, are produced by meiosis When egg and sperm combine to form a fertilized egg (zygote), 23 pairs of chromosomes are again present Mitosis – a form of cell division that yields daughter cells that have 23 pairs of chromosomes Slide 10: Meiotic and Mitotic Cell Division Figure 2.17, p. 38 Slide 11: Chromosomes: Reproduction, Linkage, and Recombination (continued) Meiosis leads to diversity as the 23 pairs of chromosomes are randomly sorted into the 2 gametes produced Linkage – the tendency of traits encoded on the same chromosome to be inherited together Crossing over – increases diversity, “shuffles the genetic deck” Slide 12: CrossingOver Crossing over shuffles the genetic material; it is why all the genes on a chromosome are not always inherited together Slide 13: Chromosomes: Structure and Replication (continued) Chromosomes are DNA molecules: double strands of nucleotide bases wrapped around each other A nucleotide on strand 1 always pairs with a particular nucleotide on strand 2 To replicate, the strands unwind; each nucleotide attracts its complementary base, making two DNA molecules identical to the original Slide 14: Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits Sex chromosomes, X and Y, look different and carry different genes Female = XX Male = XY Sex-linked traits – influenced by genes on the sex chromosomes Dominant traits on the X chromosome will be seen more commonly in females, recessive ones in males

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