Ch 04

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Published on December 22, 2008

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Chapter 4 : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Chapter 4 Developmental Assessment Competencies : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Competencies Identify the defining concepts and principles of major developmental theories. Assess patients’ developmental levels by applying the major developmental theories. Incorporate appropriate developmental tasks associated with each life stage into a patient’s assessment. Select appropriate developmental assessment tools for use in screening a patient for developmental difficulties. Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Theories Ages and stages Developmental stage Developmental tasks Life event/transitional Ages and Stages Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Ages and Stages Developmental Theories Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (1952) Stages Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operations Formal operational (continues) Ages and Stages Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Ages and Stages Developmental Theories Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality development (1946) Personality Ego Superego (continues) Ages and Stages Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Ages and Stages Developmental Theories Psychosexual stages Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital (continues) Ages and Stages Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Ages and Stages Developmental Theories Erikson’s Epigenic theory of personality (1974) Stages Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority (continues) Ages and Stages Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Ages and Stages Developmental Theories Stages in Erikson's Epigenic theory (cont.) Identity vs. Role confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego integrity vs. Despair (continues) Ages and Stages Developmental Theories : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Ages and Stages Developmental Theories Kohlberg’s theory of moral development (1981) Levels Preconventional Conventional Postconventional Developmental Stages, Tasks, and Life Events : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Stages, Tasks, and Life Events Stages Infancy (birth to 1 year) Toddler (1 to 3 years) Preschool (3 to 6 years) School-age (6 to 12 years) Adolescent (12 to 18 years) Young adult (18 to 30 years) Early middle age (30 to 50 years) Late middle age (50 to 70 years) Late adulthood (70 years to death) Stage 1: Infancy : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 1: Infancy Rapid physical, motor, cognitive, emotional, and social growth Major task is weaning Sensorimotor (Piaget) Oral (Freud) Trust vs. Mistrust (Erikson) Growth and Development During Infancy : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Growth and Development During Infancy Gross motor Fine motor Language Sensory Stage 2: Toddler : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 2: Toddler Steadily increasing motor development and control Intense activity and discovery Rapid language development Increasingly independent behaviors Marked personality development (continues) Stage 2: Toddler : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 2: Toddler Gross motor Fine motor Language Sensory Developmental Theories During Toddlerhood : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Theories During Toddlerhood Sensorimotor to preoperational (Piaget) Anal (Freud) Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (Erikson) Preconventional level—moral stage (Kohlberg) Stage 3: Preschool : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 3: Preschool Focused on developing initiative and purpose Preoperational (Piaget) Phallic (Freud) Initiative vs. Guilt (Erikson) Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange (Kohlberg) (continues) Stage 3: Preschool : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 3: Preschool Fine motor Gross motor Language Sensory Stage 4: School-age : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 4: School-age Reduce dependency on family for socialization, begins to socialize with peers Preoperational to concrete operations (Piaget) Latency (Freud) Industry vs. Inferiority (Erikson) Conventional level—mutual expectations, relationships, and conformity (Kohlberg) (continues) Stage 4: School-age : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 4: School-age Fine motor Gross motor Language Sensory Stage 5: Adolescent : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 5: Adolescent Period of struggle and turmoil Formal operations (Piaget) Genital (Freud) Identify vs. Role confusion (Erikson) Conventional level—social system and conscience (Kohlberg) (continues) Stage 5: Adolescent : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 5: Adolescent Fine motor Gross motor Language Sensory Stage 6: Young Adult : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 6: Young Adult Time of separation and independence from the family Marked by new commitments, accountability, responsibilities Key developmental tasks Formal operations (Piaget) Intimacy vs. Isolation (Erikson) Postconventional level—social contract or utility and individual rights (Kohlberg) Stage 7: Early Middle Age : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 7: Early Middle Age Settle into career, lifestyle, relationships Develop political, civic, social, professional, religious affiliations Key developmental tasks Generativity vs. Stagnation (Erikson) Postconventional level—social contract or utility (Kohlberg) Stage 8: Late Middle Age : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 8: Late Middle Age Development of chronic disease Changes in relationships, affiliations Key developmental tasks Generativity vs. Stagnation (Erikson) Universal ethical principles stage (Kohlberg) Stage 9: Late Adulthood : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stage 9: Late Adulthood Time for adjustments Changes in health, relationships, affiliations Key developmental tasks Ego integrity vs. Despair (Erikson) Universal ethical principles stage continues (Kohlberg) Stages of the Family Life Cycle : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Stages of the Family Life Cycle Leaving home Joining of families Families with young children Families with adolescents Launching children Families in later life Developmental Assessment Tools : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning (continues) Developmental Assessment Tools Infants to young school-age children Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment (BNBAS) Denver II Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ) Early Language Milestones Scale (ELM) Developmental Assessment Tools : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Assessment Tools Carey Infant and Child Temperament Questionnaire Washington Guide to Promoting Development in the Young Child Stress Scale for Children Adolescents HEADSS (home, education, activities, drugs, sex, and suicide) adolescent risk profile (continues) Developmental Assessment Tools : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Assessment Tools Children with disabilities NGAGED (now, growth and development, activities of daily living, general health, environment, and documentation) Adults Recent Life Changes Questionnaire Life Experiences Survey (continues) Developmental Assessment Tools : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Assessment Tools Everyday Hassles Scale (EHS) Stress Audit Sense of coherence (SOC) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Older adults Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) (continues) Developmental Assessment Tools : Copyright 2002, Delmar, A division of Thomson Learning Developmental Assessment Tools Functional Assessment Screening in the Elderly (FASE) Nursing home residents Minimum Data Set for Nursing Facility Resident Assessment and Care Screening Families Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM) Friedman Family Assessment Model (FFAM)

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