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Published on November 7, 2007

Author: Cinderella

Source: authorstream.com

Soar-RWA: Planning, Teamwork, and Intelligent Behavior for Synthetic Rotary Wing Aircraft:  Soar-RWA: Planning, Teamwork, and Intelligent Behavior for Synthetic Rotary Wing Aircraft Randall W. Hill, Jr., Johnny Chen, Jonathan Gratch, Paul Rosenbloom, Milind Tambe University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute The Synthetic Battlefield:  The Synthetic Battlefield Purpose Training Mission planning and rehearsal Tactics and doctrine development Weapon-system concept evaluation Project Goals:  Project Goals Build Virtual Humans and other Intelligent Agents Apply these agents in a variety of different domains Goals for Synthetic Force Agents:  Goals for Synthetic Force Agents Act autonomously for days at a time Reduce load on human operators Behave in human-like manner Produce high quality simulation Perform commander’s functions Reduce the number of human operators Outline:  Outline High level capabilities AI Technology Soar Perception Teamwork Planning STOW-97 ACTD results Current research Pilot Agents:  Pilot Agents Fly helicopters in synthetic terrain Requires perceptual and motor skills Execute missions Reactive planning Act as a team Coordinate activities Recover from failures Command Agent:  Command Agent Plan missions Monitor execution of plans Communicate with superiors & subordinates Mission Capabilities:  Mission Capabilities Army Deep Attack AH-64C Apache Rotary Wing Aircraft (RWA) Company-level planning and execution Attack Helicopter Battalion deployed Marine Transport CH-46E Sea Knight & CH-53E Super Stallion Marine Escort AH-1W Super Cobra Army Deep Attack Mission:  Army Deep Attack Mission Engagement Area Assembly Area Battle Position Holding Area Phase Line Phase Line LD ~5 km ~70 km Marine Transport/Escort Mission:  Marine Transport/Escort Mission Landing Zone Architecture:  Architecture ModSAF Simulator Pilot Agent Distributed Interactive Simulation Network Entity State Pilot Agent Pilot Agent Pilot Agent Company Commander Agent Battalion Operation Order Company Operation Order Situation Report Sensing Rotary Wing Aircraft Rotary Wing Aircraft Rotary Wing Aircraft Rotary Wing Aircraft AI Technology:  AI Technology High level capabilities AI Technology Soar Perception Teamwork Planning STOW-97 ACTD results Current research Soar:  Soar Rosenbloom, Laird, & Newell Integrated intelligent system Unified theory of cognition Represent tasks and goals as operators Rules and subgoals: Suggest and compare operators Execute and terminate operators Operator hierarchy for pilot agent Pilot Agent: Partial Operator Hierarchy:  Pilot Agent: Partial Operator Hierarchy Execute-Mission Fly-Flight-Plan Engage Prepare-to- return-to-base Fly-control-route Select- point Select- route High- level Low- level Contour NOE Mask Unmask Employ- weapons Initialize- hover Return- to- control- point Pilot Agent Architecture:  Pilot Agent Architecture ModSAF Simulator Pilot Agent (Soar) Rotary Wing Aircraft Distributed Interactive Simulation Network Entity State Motor Commands Perception Soar-ModSAF Interface Perception (Randy Hill):  ModSAF Perception (Randy Hill) Challenges: Rich visual field overloads visual processing Need to understand groups of entities Pilot Agent (Soar) Rotary Wing Aircraft tank tank tank tank air defense artillery tank tank air defense artillery artillery artillery artillery artillery Other Battlefield Entities: Sense Perception of Groups:  Perception of Groups Filter out unneeded details Agent can dynamically change filters Perceive groups of entities Cluster by proximity bottom-up, automatic Cluster by attribute voluntary, used for tracking Group attributes used for tracking, filtering, understanding Teamwork (Milind Tambe):  Teamwork (Milind Tambe) STEAM: General model of teamwork Utilizes joint intentions framework (Cohen & Levesque, 91) Monitor team progress Individual may fail or succeed in own role Reorganize when critical role failures Reassign critical roles based on joint intentions Decision theoretic communication selectivity Planning (Jon Gratch):  Planning (Jon Gratch) IPEM-like planner in Soar Ambros-Ingerson & Steel, 1987 Uses hierarchical, partially-ordered tasks Tasks have duration, asynchronous effects Interleaves planning and execution Unanticipated/anticipated exogenous events Alter plans in response to world changes Hierarchical Task Network:  Hierarchical Task Network Attack Move (HA) Move (BP) Engage (E) Move (LD) Passage of Lines Move (HA) Destroyed (E) @(HA) @(HA) @(BP) @(LD) STOW-97 ACTD:  STOW-97 ACTD Army Attack Missions Three company-level missions Five Apaches per company + Company Commander Last-minute planning Scrapped pre-planned missions—OPFOR locations Employed Exercise Editor and OpOrder Generator Mission Results Encountered large bodies of OPFOR Destroyed 82 OPFOR, lost 3 Apaches STOW-97 ACTD:  STOW-97 ACTD Marine Transport/Escort Missions Five company-level missions 8 CH-46E’s, 4 CH-53E’s, and 4 AH-1W’s Last-minute Planning Employed Marine RWA Exercise Editor Mission Results Completed a battalion-level lift & 2 company lifts Development Effort:  Development Effort Army Pilots: 1577 rules; 93 operators Marine Pilots: 1341 rules; 60 operators Significant sharing with Army pilots Commanders: 826 rules; 116 operators; Soar-ModSAF Interface Sensing & perception, weapons, vehicle dynamics, communication Current Work:  Current Work Group Perception Focus of attention Recognize low-level aspects of group behavior Group Understanding Model others by “thinking like them” Understand dissimilar others Current Work:  Current Work Group Planning Scale-up to Battalion-level Develop collaborative planning techniques Learning and Emotions Learn from experience Model effects of fatigue and stress Incorporate emotions in Soar architecture Benefits:  Benefits Provides command structure to forces Autonomous behavior by pilots High quality simulation Teamwork Project History:  Project History Phase One Develop intelligent forces (entity-level) Focused on Fixed Wing Aircraft domain U. of Michigan, USC-ISI, CMU Phase Two Develop command forces USC-ISI started Rotary Wing Aircraft domain Synthetic Theater of War ‘97

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