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Published on October 16, 2007

Author: Connor

Source: authorstream.com

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CERN 50th Anniversary A Photographic Timeline:  CERN 50th Anniversary A Photographic Timeline Miguel Angel Marquina (Editor) CIEMAT/CERN Introduction:  Introduction This sampling has been built recreating the document “Highlights of CERN History”, written on the occasion of CERN’s 40th and 50th anniversaries. Pictures and photographic material have been taken from CERN’s CDS system, which contains more than 5000 entries; all are copyrighted CERN. Timeline Index:  Timeline Index 1950-1959 1960-1969 1970-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2004 1949:  1949 During the European Cultural Conference at Lausanne, the French physicist and Nobel prize-winner Louis de Broglie proposes the creation of a European science laboratory. 1950-1959:  1950-1959 1950:  1950 At the 5th General Conference of UNESCO held in Florence, the American physicist and Nobel prize-winner Isidore Rabi puts forward a resolution, which is unanimously adopted, authorising the Director General of UNESCO, "to assist and encourage the formation and organization of regional centres and laboratories in order to increase and make more fruitful the international collaboration of scientists ...". 1950:  1950 Participants of the "Colloque de Physique Theorique de Paris“ © CERN Photo 1951:  1951 Wolfgang Pauli in Heidelberg © CERN Photo 1952:  1952 After two UNESCO Conferences are held on the subject, 11 European governments sign an agreement setting up a provisional "Conseil européen pour la Recherche nucléaire" (CERN). At a meeting of the CERN council in Amsterdam, a site near Geneva is selected for the planned laboratory. 1952:  1952 Pierre Auger, Eduardo Amaldi and Lew Kowarski © CERN Photo 1953:  1953 1954:  1954 The European Organization for Nuclear Research is formally created on 29th September, when sufficient ratifications of the Convention establishing CERN are obtained from Member States, thus dissolving the "provisional" CERN. The acronym CERN, however, is retained. 1954:  1954 First excavation work on Meyrin site © CERN Photo 1954:  1954 PS magnet model Foundations of the SC building © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1955:  1955 Twelve founding Member States ratify the Convention: Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. 1955:  1955 First coil for the SC Wilson chamber of CERN © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1955:  1955 PS ring : foundations for "pendulum" supports PS magnet unit : a small scale model © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1955:  1955 "First stone" ceremony : authorities in the audience First meeting of the CERN Council © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1956:  1956 Wolfgang Pauli at the 6th meeting of the Nobel Prize laureates PS injector : high voltage ion source under tests © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1956:  1956 PS ring building under construction The double Wilson chamber © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1957:  1957 The 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron comes into operation. One of the first experimental achievements is the long-awaited observation of the decay of a pion directly into an electron and a neutrino. 1957:  1957 SC experiments : one of the first pion beams Projector to analyze track chamber film © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1958:  1958 The Mercury computer Hydrogen bubble chamber (10 cm. diameter) © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1958:  1958 The first two magnet units installed in the PS ring Pauli's funeral wreaths at Fraumunster church in Zurich © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1959:  1959 Austria joins CERN First operation of the 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), which is for a time the highest energy accelerator in the world. In the same year, the first experiments using neutrino beams are carried out; this field of research eventually becomes a speciality of the physics programme at CERN. 1959:  1959 SC experiments : liquid deuterium target in the extracted proton beam Professor Cornelis Jan Bakker, Director-General of CERN from Sep 1955 to Apr 1960 © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1959:  1959 Congratulation messages from the whole world received by CERN upon the successful operation of the PS © CERN Photo 1960-1969:  1960-1969 1960:  1960 PS inauguration ceremony : Niels Bohr signing PS inauguration ceremony : M. Willems with W. Heisenberg © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1960:  1960 Prof. Leon Van Hove Pier Giorgio Innocenti with the model of the HLBC - Heavy Liquid Bubble Chamber © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1960:  1960 Apparatus for the first "g-2" experiment at the SC Prof. Vicky Weisskopf © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1960:  1960 Interaction of a 24 GeV/c proton in the 32 cm CERN hydrogen bubble chamber. © CERN Photo 1961:  1961 Yugoslavia leaves the Organization for financial reasons. Spain joins CERN 1963:  1963 First bubble chamber pictures of neutrino interactions are taken. Neutrino physics benefits greatly from fast ejection of protons from the Synchrotron, which is achieved for the first time ever during May this year. 1964:  1964 End of the year celebrations : G. Charpak, J. Prentki and R. Armenteros (left to right) © CERN Photo 1965:  1965 Agreement with French authorities is signed in September on extending the CERN site over the French border. In December, the Council approves the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) on this extension of the site. 1965:  1965 1966:  1966 1967:  1967 CERN commissions one of the world's finest facilities for the study of very short-lived nuclei - the Isotope Separator On-line (ISOLDE). An agreement between CERN, France and Germany covers the construction of a 3.7 metre hydrogen bubble chamber equipped with the largest superconducting magnet in the world. During its working life from 1973 to 1984, the "Big European Bubble Chamber" (BEBC) takes over 6 million photographs. 1967:  1967 1968:  1968 Invention by Georges Charpak of multiwire proportional chambers and drift chambers - representing some of the most important advances in the domain of electronic particle detectors. He will be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1992 for this invention. 1968:  1968 Assembling the Gargamelle magnet The great advance in the technology of particle detectors during the year was the discovery of the properties of multiwire proportional chambers and drift chambers © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1968:  1968 The official inauguration ceremony of the European Physical Society © CERN Photo 1969:  1969 Spain leaves the Organization 1970-1979:  1970-1979 1970:  1970 First injection tests into ISR Ring I Big European Bubble Chamber BEBC © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1970:  1970 A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber © CERN Photo 1971:  1971 Approval of the proposal to build a second laboratory adjoining the existing site in France and Switzerland for the construction of a new Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) which is initially planned to reach an energy of 300 GeV. Although at first administratively separate, the two CERN laboratories are united in January 1976. 1971:  1971 Injection line from Linac to Booster Approval for the construction of a 300 GeV proton synchrotron © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1971:  1971 ERASME © CERN Photo 1972:  1972 A four ring 800 MeV Booster is completed to increase the injection energy of the PS. With the booster and the new Linac, which starts operation in 1978, the PS machine exceeds its design intensity by more than a thousand times. 1973:  1973 First important discoveries from the experiments at the ISR emerge: protons grow in size as their energy is increased; and colliding protons can produce diffraction patterns rather like those of light bending around a disc, thus showing the wave nature of the proton. It is with the French-built Gargamelle bubble chamber in a neutrino beam at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) that one of CERN's greatest physics discoveries is made: it is found that neutrinos can interact with another particle without changing into a muon. This behaviour is known as the "neutral current interaction" and is the discovery which opens the door to what is known as "new physics". It has great implications for the theoretical ideas about the fundamental forces of physics. In particular, it gives strong support to the theory which attempts to unite our understanding of the weak force - governing such phenomena as radioactivity - with the familiar electromagnetic force. 1974:  1974 Spark chamber experiment The Omega spectrometer © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1974:  1974 Discovery of charmed particles : Sam Ting The magnetic tape vault © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1974:  1974 U7 particle identifier First magnet in the SPS © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1975:  1975 Cockcroft-Walton Column © CERN Photo 1976:  1976 Start of operation of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). As with the ISR, machine construction is completed ahead of schedule and within the authorised budget. The accelerator performance improves rapidly so that the design intensity is exceeded and at the end of 1978, the peak energy is taken to 500 GeV. 1976:  1976 Cockcroft-Walton generator for Linac 2 The SPS (Super Proton Synch.) tunnel with, in the foreground in red, a dipole magnet. About 800 six-metre long dipole magnets guide the beam. © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1977:  1977 SPS : inauguration ceremony © CERN Photo 1977:  1977 1978:  1978 Experiments at CERN show how beam quality and intensity can be improved using the "stochastic cooling technique", enabling intense beams of antiprotons to be accelerated and stored. 1978:  1978 Bubble chamber : a BEBC liquid hydrogen event © CERN Photo 1979:  1979 1980-1989:  1980-1989 1981:  1981 Conversion of the SPS into a proton-antiproton collider and the building of two experimental areas (UA-1 and UA-2) where data from the collisions can be taken. From then on, the operation of the SPS is divided between this collider mode and fixed-target physics. The first proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 2 x 270 GeV are seen in July 1981, a few months after the start-up of the new Antiproton Accumulator ring (AA), where stochastic cooling is applied to produce the antiproton beam. The Member States authorise construction of the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) for an initial operating energy of 50 GeV per beam. 1981:  1981 UA1 experiment detector © CERN Photo 1982:  1982 Spray of particles © CERN Photo 1983:  1983 Discovery of the W-bosons (January) and the Z-boson (May) - the carriers of the weak nuclear force - thus confirming the theory of electro-weak interactions and unifying the weak and electromagnetic forces. In September, the ground-breaking ceremony for LEP takes place in the presence of the French and Swiss Presidents, Mr. François Mitterrand and Mr. Pierre Aubert. LEP is the largest scientific instrument ever constructed, with a circumference of 27 kilometers. Spain rejoins CERN 1983:  1983 LEP ground-breaking ceremony in 1983 Image reconstituée par ordinateur d'une collision proton-pbar. Parmi les produits de cette collision, on peut reconnaître les traces de la désintégration d'un "boson intermédiaire Z0" en un électron et un positon (anti-électron). © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1983:  1983 Press conference : discovery of the intermediate W boson © CERN Photo 1984:  1984 Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer receive the Nobel Prize for Physics for their experimental work on proton-antiproton collisions which culminated in the discovery of the W boson and Z boson at CERN in 1983. 1984:  1984 A cut-away diagram of the OPAL detector Carlo Rubbia (left) and Simon van der Meer in 1984 © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1985:  1985 LEP sextupole magnet ALEPH experimental area : schema © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1986:  1986 CHARM II (neutrino detector) LINAC Injector for LEP (LIL) © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1987:  1987 Electron Positron Accumulator (EPA) ALEPH magnet return yoke and hadron calorimeter © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1987:  1987 The superconducting coil of the DELPHI experiment on the final leg of its journey from the UK Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to CERN, descending from the Jura mountains in October 1987 UA1 detector : decay of a W © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1987:  1987 Detector for the UA2 experiment LEP magnet : first installation © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1987:  1987 UA1 : first Z event recorded © CERN Photo 1988:  1988 OPAL detector end cap UA2 event © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1988:  1988 Léon Lederman, Mel Schwartz and Jack Steinberger wre awarded the 1988 Nobel Physics Prize. View of part of the Computer Centre in 1988 with, in the background against the rear wall, a CRAY X-MP/48 supercomputer © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1989:  1989 In August, LEP starts up. In October, only two months after the first collisions in LEP, CERN makes a very important physics discovery. After an extremely accurate measurement of the width of the Z0 particle, CERN physicists announce that the fundamental building blocks of matter consist of only three families of particles. On the 13th of November, LEP is officially inaugurated by Heads of State and Science Ministers from CERN Member States and other countries involved in the CERN experimental programme. Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web 1989:  1989 An exploded view of the OPAL detector L3 experiment: inside calorimeter BGO © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1989:  1989 DELPHI: installing of the time projection chamber ALEPH hadronic calorimeter © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1989:  1989 L3 experiment LEP : inauguration ceremony © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1989:  1989 DELPHI: time projection chamber © CERN Photo 1990-1999:  1990-1999 1990-1999:  1990-1999 The years from 1989 are marked by the success of LEP experiments. The outstanding result is the precision measurement of the Z resonance parameters: over the period from 1989 to 1993 the four LEP detectors - ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL - reconstructed more than 10 million Z decays. The World-Wide-Web was also cooked and then exposed thanks to NCSA-Mosaic during the early 90’s 1990:  1990 Station de test pour aimant LHC Cérémonie arrivée du dernier cristal BGO + end cap du calorimètre hadronique © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1990:  1990 OBELIX experiment and detector at LEAR L3 detector : decay of a Z0 © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1990:  1990 OPAL detector : decay Z0 ALEPH : decay of a Z0 © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1990:  1990 DELPHI : decay of a Z0 The first web server: this machine was used by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 to develop and run the first WWW server, multi-media browser and web editor. © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1991:  1991 In December, CERN's Council delegates agree unanimously that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the right machine for further significant advance in the field of high energy physics research and for the future of CERN. Finland and Poland join CERN 1992:  1992 George Charpak, a CERN physicist, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for the invention of the multiwire proportional chamber, which enables physicists to make major progress in the tracking of particles and which is now used for many medical applications. Hungary joins CERN 1992:  1992 ISOLDE hall Three Nobel Prize winners at CERN : Rubbia, Ting and Charpak © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1992:  1992 Beam line of the ISOLDE facility inaugurated in 1992 LHC prototype of the two beam pipes © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1992:  1992 Higgs boson simulation © CERN Photo 1993:  1993 Czech and Slovak Republics join CERN 1993:  1993 NOMAD et CHORUS: neutrino experiments OPAL detector, central barrel © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1993:  1993 General view of muon spectrometer in the L3 detector with the magnet doors opened ALEPH detector © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1993:  1993 DELPHI detector L3 detector © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1993:  1993 The IBM Cartridge mounting robot in the Computer Centre (capacity: 18,000 cartridges) NA49 detector - general view © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1993:  1993 Charles PEYROU (former director of CERN's bubble chambers) Charpak's detector : autoradiography of a rat brain © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1994:  1994 On December 16th the CERN Council gave the go-ahead for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, to be financed by the Member States with substantial contributions by non-Member States. 1995:  1995 NA48 experiment Superconducting radio frequency cavity installed in the LEP tunnel for LEP2, the upgrade of the accelerator. © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 1999:  1999 Bulgaria joins CERN 1999 – 20 member states:  1999 – 20 member states 2000-2004:  2000-2004 2000:  2000 LEP ceases to operate at the end of the year to make way for the construction of the LHC, having achieved its aim of placing the “Standard Model: on firm experimental ground. 2000:  2000 ALEPH experiment: Candidate of Higgs boson production titulo © CERN Photo 2000:  2000 LEP Fest 2000 - Science Symposium : L. Schopper "LEP in perspective", The inception of LEP © CERN Photo 2000:  2000 LEP Fest 2000 - Science Symposium : J. Steinberger "LEP experiments", ALEPH LEP Fest 2000 - Science Symposium : U. Amaldi "LEP experiments", DELPHI © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 2000:  2000 LEP Fest 2000 - Science Symposium : U. Becker "LEP experiments", L3 LEP Fest 2000 - Science Symposium : A. Michelini "LEP experiments", OPAL © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 2000:  2000 Démantèlement du LEP Enlèvement du dernier module supraconducteur © CERN Photo 2001:  2001 The beginning of L3 experiment dismantling © CERN Photo 2002:  2002 Collision in ATHENA experiment: an actual antihydrogen atom annihilation event titulo © CERN Photo 2003:  2003 The dipole magnets for the first octant of the LHC are completed. 2003:  2003 Transport from Spain to CERN of a vacuum vessel for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet-system. World Summit on the Information Society © CERN Photo © CERN Photo 2003:  2003 The human face of the DataGrid collaboration! © CERN Photo 2004:  2004 The new computer room build in the building 513 Globe de l'Innovation - Assemblage de la charpentage et et pose des premiers bardages © CERN Photo © CERN Photo

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