Published on March 16, 2016
1. Serving Students, Faculty and Business Center for International Business Education and Research Warrington College of Business Administration University of Florida Four-Year Report Grant 3: October 2006 - September 2010
2. CIBER Synergies: A Comprehensive Review of Programs Grant 3: 2006 – 2010 and An Overview of Programs Grant 4: 2010 - 2014 Center for International Business Education and Research CIBER Website: http://warrington.ufl.edu/ciber/ CIBER PO Box 117140 Warrington College of Business University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 (352) 392-3433
3. From the management team 2010 was a year of renewal and retirement for The University of Florida (UF) CIBER. The Center was successful in its application for a fourth cycle of funding from the US Department of Education. The new $1.5 million four-year award permits continuation of the Center’s most successful programs of the 2006-2010 grant and also allows implementation of a host of new initiatives that address international business (IB) training challenges arising in the wake of the “Great Recession.” The excitement of new funds and new programs was tempered by the sobering prospect of managing them without the assistance of long-time CIBER Associate Director, Dr. Terry McCoy. Former Director of UF’s Center for Latin American Studies, Terry was instrumental in designing a UF CIBER plan that resulted in the first successful grant application in 1998. He had a vision of integrating business, area studies and foreign language expertise across campus that would indeed make UF a national resource for improving IB training and enhancing competitiveness of US firms in global markets. During his twelve years of dedicated service, Terry grew the vision by expanding CIBER reach at UF and he assured successful grant performance by diligent oversight of Center initiatives. While UF CIBER will continue to benefit from Terry’s input on some specific activities, his retirement from Center administration leaves leadership and management gaps that will be challenging to fill. With 2010 marking the end of the 2006-2010 grant and the beginning of the 2010-2014 program, the current volume of CIBER Synergies contains both a detailed report on accomplishments of the former and a comprehensive overview of plans for the latter. Particularly notable achievements of 2006-2010 include successful initiation of an African business environment program, significant innovation and expansion of business foreign language and culture offerings, implementation of three programs supporting development of IB training capacity at smaller and minority-serving institutions of higher education in Florida, and a sharp ratcheting up in sophistication and relevance of program evaluation. These activities are scheduled for continuation and expansion in the 2010-2014 grant cycle. However, initiatives conceived in 2006 did not foresee the “Great Recession” that significantly altered the IB training environment. New CIBER programs reflecting themes of sustainability and understanding the institutional frameworks of global trade and investment respond to the changed environment. And as in past renewal proposals, new initiatives reflect new UF CIBER partnerships. As noted in the application abstract, while UF’s proposal was submitted by the Warrington College of Business Administration (WCBA), it was in fact the concerted effort of talented faculty from 10 colleges, 18 departments and 12 centers at UF, plus a host of other regional, national and international institutions of higher education. We take this opportunity to thank those faculty members and also to express our appreciation to the UF CIBER Advisory Council (report Appendix 1) for input that improves the effectiveness of the Center in serving students, faculty and businesses. Carol West Andy Naranjo Isabelle Winzeler Nikki Kernaghan Director Associate Director Assistant Director Evaluation Coordinator
4. 1 I. Serving students UF CIBER programs for students offer innovative international business (IB) training in Florida classrooms and overseas. Simultaneously, they recognize the importance of developing the IB research skills of both graduate and undergraduate students. And in today’s networked markets, a critical part of the educational process is linking students to professional groups that can be on-going IB research and employment resources. A. In UF classrooms Earlier UF CIBER funding cycles supported basic IB course and IB course module development. Examples included the addition of international dimensions to core economics and business classes. Foreign language initiatives stressed development and delivery of basic Business Spanish, Business Portuguese, Business Japanese and Business Chinese. Some FLAC (Foreign Language across the Curriculum) courses were introduced that interacted foreign language training with business class content. The 2006-2010 cycle focused on (1) providing foreign business culture training to students without corresponding foreign language expertise; (2) expanding IB training to students outside the Warrington College of Business Administration (WCBA), and; (3) developing UF regional IB expertise, specifically through courses focused on Africa and Latin America. A complete list of courses supported by UF CIBER, 2006-2010, is provided in Appendix 2. Historically, business language classes such as Business Chinese or Business Japanese were the primary venue for teaching foreign business cultures. While this traditional approach is perhaps theoretically ideal in melding language and culture, it has notable practical limitations. Students cannot study all the languages corresponding to the major cultures they will need to interact with in future global trade and investment. Consequently, UF CIBER funded foreign language faculty to develop and deliver courses in English on key foreign business cultures. Initial pilots were one-credit classes on the Business Culture of China and the Business Culture of Japan. Enthusiastic student evaluations consistently requested more in-depth three-credit courses which were developed and piloted in the second half of the grant period. Augmenting the Asian offerings was a one-credit course on the Business Culture of Africa followed by development of a three-credit version of the material. Escalating enrollments in Arabic language courses encouraged funding development of Business Arabic. However, most of that enrollment increase was in first-year courses that, given the complexity of the language, do not prepare students for a business language class taught solely in Arabic. UF CIBER’s modified Business Arabic was designed to encourage more advanced study of the language (especially by business students). It has more emphasis on language than a strictly business culture course, but augments instruction in Arabic with instruction in English. It allows beginners in the language to supplement language training with education on business practices of Arabic- speaking countries of the world.
5. 2 In the current world economy characterized by globalization of almost all markets, IB training needs to reach students in professional and academic programs outside business colleges. UF CIBER responded to this need by enhancing resources for IB classes serving both business and non-business students and by sponsoring FLAC sections targeting students outside WCBA. Anthropology Assistant Professor Dr. Brenda Chalfin piloted a new course on Anthropology and the New Economy: Anthropological Perspectives on Finance, Commerce and Neoliberalism. The class encourages anthropology students to think about IB aspects of their major and introduces business students to anthropological perspectives on global trade. CIBER Director, Dr. Carol West’s upper division elective The Firm in the Global Economy has an enrollment that is approximately equally divided between students from WCBA and students from Liberal Arts and Sciences. Thirty five percent of the work in the class is a team project designing a foreign market entry strategy for a firm. CIBER support for this important training in IB market analysis included subsidizing the purchase of cross-country databases and funding a student assistant to research potential project topics. (A syllabus for the Spring 2010 offering of The Firm in the Global Economy is provided in Appendix 3 as an example of CIBER- supported on-campus IB course offerings). Since the inception of UF CIBER in 1998, UF’s popular FLAC program has been a model for integrating foreign language training with business content. In its traditional form, a “FLAC section” is a one-credit discussion section conducted in a foreign language in conjunction with a content course. It is taught by a foreign language graduate student who receives pedagogical training and who works out reading/discussion materials in conjunction with the content course professor (who need not speak the language). Recent CIBER modifications of this traditional FLAC model include: (a) elimination of association with a particular course; (b) instruction by a foreign language professor with business interests, and; (c) instruction by a content professor with foreign language skills. Variant (a) is used for multidisciplinary, cross-college current business topics. Modification (b) allows foreign language professors to “test out” business foreign language teaching without commitment to a formal 3-credit course. Variant (c) augments stretched language staffs and builds a foreign language training constituency in non- language departments. The modifications have allowed CIBER to extend the FLAC concept to less commonly taught languages and also to target non-business students as potential enrollees. Piloted in 2006-2010 were Asian Sports Markets (taught in Chinese targeting students in the College of Health and Human Performance), Marketing of Agricultural Products in the European Union (taught in French targeting students in agriculture), Generational Perspectives on Latin American Healthcare Delivery (taught in Spanish targeting students in the College of Public Health and Health Professions) and Cities of the Spanish Speaking World and Cities of the Portuguese Speaking World (taught in Spanish and Portuguese respectively and targeting students in the College of Design, Construction and Urban Planning).
6. 3 Like the FLAC program, global regional focus on Latin America has been part of the UF CIBER program since the Center was first funded in 1998. A goal of the 2006-2010 agenda was to initiate development of a UF specialization in African business. Given burgeoning Asian economies and established major US trading partners in Europe and strategic Mideast countries, it is natural to ask, “Why Africa?” The answer lies in the purposes for the CIBER program outlined in the enabling Title VI Higher Education Act. The first Center mandate is to “Be a national resource for the teaching of improved business techniques, strategies and methodologies which emphasize the international context in which business is conducted.” [italics added]. Being a national resource implies developing unique IB specializations not readily duplicated at other institutions. In the case of UF, CIBER has been able to partner with world-class Centers housing African business expertise (including the Center for African Studies in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and the Public Utility Research Center (PURC) in WCBA), making African business a natural focus for creation of a national IB resource at UF. Need for a national resource in African IB has been amply demonstrated by surveys, anecdotes, and foreign trade and investment statistics. The Higher Education Act requires the Secretary of Education to consult with Federal agency heads in order to receive recommendations regarding areas of national need for expertise in foreign languages and world regions. In the most recent survey, conducted in September 2009, Africa was the most commonly cited region. Anecdotal evidence from campuses confirms common misunderstanding of the continent—e.g., students mislabeling Africa as a “country.” And ignorance inhibits commerce. Trade and investment data verify that the US lags the rest of the world in establishing commercial ties with Africa and benefitting from recently improved business climates. Despite the fact that the US direct investment position in Africa has posted a compound annual growth rate that appears healthy during this decade (5-10%), and that the share of US merchandise exports destined for Africa has increased during the same period, those rates and shares remain approximately half non-US global norms. During 2006-2010, UF CIBER sponsored the infusion of African business into core courses (particularly Principles of Macroeconomics) and IB courses (particularly The Firm in the Global Economy) and also sponsored development and delivery of entire classes focused on IB potential of the region—e.g., Economic Development of Africa and Africa in the Global Economy. B. In non-UF Florida classrooms Funding opportunities for IB education and training innovation vary considerably across Florida’s complex higher education system with its 11 state universities, 28 community/state colleges and more than 60 private colleges and universities. For faculty in units with endowment funds and/or external profit-making programs, income from these sources may provide needed financial support for individual faculty initiatives. For others, there is a critical mass of talent at the home institution that can be assembled to attract national funding, allowing financing of a specific effort as part of a broader program. For many educators in Florida, however, neither of these opportunities exists.
7. 4 Consequently, initiatives that could yield high returns to the state’s IB infrastructure growth go unimplemented. UF CIBER’s EFIBI program (“Enhancing Florida’s International Business Infrastructure”) specifically targets these missed opportunities. It serves non-UF higher education students through grants to develop IB programs meeting the specialized needs and structures of these institutions. To date, 21 IB development grants have been awarded under the EFIBI program, the majority for course development. They include classes delivered in business, in the social sciences, and in foreign language departments, and they have impacted students at 14 non-UF institutions of higher education that span the state from Pensacola to Miami. Supplemental 2009-2010 CIBER funding targeted IB course enhancement at minority- serving institutions. Having already supported program development at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) through the Globalizing Business Schools CIBER consortium (See Section II.C below), the UF Center focused the new funds on program development at the major Hispanic-serving institution (HSI), Valencia Community College. The latter is an excellent partner for developing national prototype IB modules that serve Hispanic population of Puerto Rican heritage. It represents the higher education venue through which US Hispanic population is most effectively reached. Forty eight percent of HSIs are community colleges compared with only 12% of HBCUs and 60% of Hispanics in higher education enroll in community colleges, a rate disproportionate to all other demographic groups. And Valencia is a major HSI. It ranks third nationally in associate degrees awarded to Hispanics—27% of its 50,000 students are Hispanic, drawn primarily from the Orlando metropolitan area population in which over 50% of the Hispanic population is of Puerto Rican heritage. IB modules were developed for basic business courses that serve the dual tracks typical of institutions awarding associate degrees, terminal career programs, and preparation for transfer into a four-year institution. C. Overseas training Annual offering of the summer Business in Brazil program, conducted in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, was continued throughout the most recent four-year grant period. The six- credit program combines training in Portuguese, lectures and field trips on Brazilian business practices, and cultural immersion. The unique national program has attracted students from universities as diverse as San Diego State, Northwestern, Kansas, NYU, UCLA, Michigan and Harvard, and has regularly resulted in follow-up internships in the country. For students more limited by time and/or funds, the short-term study abroad (STSA) has increased in popularity. A key feature of CIBER-funded programs is that they be open to students from multiple disciplines, allowing students to learn from each other as well as from formal program activities. Two variants of the basic STSA concept exist. The “tour model” typically consists of some background classroom work followed by 10-14 days overseas travel to a variety of locales in a country or a region. During 2006-2010,
8. 5 CIBER subsidized seven such tour model STSA programs: four offerings of the International Financial Markets STSA which rotates in overseas destinations among Argentina, Brazil and Chile; two deliveries of the agriculture-focused STSA to Italy, Italian Food—From Production to Policy, and; one offering of the law-focused Legal Institutions of the Americas Study Tour—Chile. (See Appendix 4 for a sample STSA itinerary.) In addition to providing an overseas learning experience for students, the International Financial Markets STSA had a broad impact on WCBA offerings by serving as a prototype for other degree-specific tours. The model, in conjunction with the advice of its developer, CIBER Associate Director Andy Naranjo, spawned a variety of STSA tours, available (or required) in different master’s programs and targeting destinations in Eastern Europe, Asia, the Mideast and Latin America. In the “university model” of the STSA, students go abroad to a specific facility that is the center for lectures and visits (much like a semester abroad to a particular foreign university, but shorter in duration). UF’s Paris Research Center provides opportunity for UF faculty to develop European-based STSAs in this format. CIBER supported two such programs: International Leadership: Adopting Businesses and Governments to New Realities (a 2-credit course offered over Spring Break in Paris by PURC Director, Dr. Mark Jamison) and Commodities to Cafes—Agricultural and Food Marketing in France (a 2-credit course offered over the May Intercession period in Paris by Food and Resource Economics Associate Professor James Sterns). Three programs funded research experiences abroad for students with particular focus on Africa: (1) the Microfinance Travel Grant initiative; (2) the Doctoral Dissertation Overseas Research program, and; (3) the Research Tutorial Abroad. Under (1), two students per year were awarded travel grants through a competitive application process to pursue research overseas on a microfinance topic. The students funded to date have come from diverse UF programs, including undergraduate, MBA, and graduate Political Science and they have focused on a variety of African countries, such as Tanzania, Kenya, and Mali. These students have pursued a range of microfinance research topics— e.g., how rules, terms and conditions of microfinance institutions (MFI) affect business performance in the informal sector, use of technology (SMART cards, ATMs, mobile phones, etc.) by African MFI’s and the impact of that usage, and effects of MFI services for women on African gender equality. Travel grants for doctoral dissertation research not focused on microfinance supported anthropological study of Ghanaian entrepreneurship and political science analysis of corporate social responsibility as a competitive strategy in Equatorial Guinea. Students conduct research on their own overseas in both the Microfinance Travel Grant and Doctoral Dissertation Overseas Research programs. However, for many students (and their parents), this is a daunting format when the destination is Africa. Their initial exposure to the continent needs to be in a more structured group venue. The structured and faculty-led STSA or Business in Brazil type programs provide models for students interested in a region, but not at the point of traveling and conducting research on their own abroad. However, there is not a clear destination locale for “African business” analogous to say, Sao Paulo for “Brazilian business” or Seoul for “South Korean
9. 6 business.” In addition, vast size of the continent and its infrastructure limitations discourage travel to multiple locations on a single trip. These constraints render highly questionable how successful the STSA or Business in Brazil model might be if applied to the African situation. Consequently, UF CIBER developed the Research Tutorial Abroad (RTA) concept for initial student exposure to research in Africa. In the RTA program, faculty members submit proposals for taking 2-3 students abroad to Africa to conduct research on a specific IB topic for 3-6 weeks. Successful applicants receive $5,000 to subsidize the faculty member’s participation and $5,000 to subsidize student participation. The research topic defines the specific African destination—thereby avoiding the destination selection problem of the STSA or Business in Brazil approaches—but the faculty member’s presence and organization provides the structure absent in other CIBER programs subsidizing student research on African IB topics. Two proposals were funded for a pilot of the program in Summer 2009. Dr. Julie Silva, Assistant Professor of Geography, supervised field research of an undergraduate in Namibia. He examined differences in applied stringency of eco-tourism regulations as a function of development investors’ home country (countries). Dr. Peter Schmidt, Professor of Anthropology, supervised a graduate and an undergraduate student in Tanzania addressing the potential for US private investment in that country’s heritage tourism development. D. IB networking Three UF CIBER programs have linked students with networks promoting their IB development. For doctoral students in business, workshops organized by a consortium of CIBERs bring together national academic IB research leaders in a discipline from various universities to meet with students at the dissertation planning stage of their graduate education. Students receive guidance in formulating potential IB dissertation topics and become part of a national network of peers and intellectual leaders that can support subsequent work on the topics. During 2006-2010, UF CIBER sponsored participation of UF doctoral students in such specialized workshops in finance, information sciences and operations management (ISOM) and accounting. The biennial Latin American Business Symposium and Career Workshop has served students from around the state, as well as from UF. They learn corporate perspectives on the region from representatives of multiple industries and they gain insights on career experiences and opportunities in Latin America from recent graduates working in the private sector, in government agencies, and in NGOs. Approximately 200 students attended the 2008 program. CIBER funds representatives of the undergraduate International Business Society (IBS) to attend the Florida International Summit (See Section III.A below). This provides opportunity for IBS to compare activities and plan joint ventures with similar groups at other Florida institutions of higher education.
10. 7 In addition to serving students through IB courses offered in Florida classrooms, training and research programs overseas, and networking connections, students gain IB experience through working as assistants on CIBER teaching, research and outreach grants to faculty and through assistantships in CIBER administration. Appendix 5 lists students receiving funding support from UF CIBER over the grant period 2006-2010. Total numbers of students impacted by the UF CIBER program measure in the thousands when all enrollees in CIBER-sponsored courses are counted and spillovers to the classroom of programs that develop faculty IB capacity are considered. E. Upcoming for students New IB course development at UF in the 2010-2014 period expands business foreign language offerings to include Russian and medical French. It extends business foreign culture courses to include Russia, Vietnam and a team-taught Asia and Africa class. New FLACs include The Cuban Economy (in Spanish), Green Labeling of Agricultural Products in the EU (in French), Russian Business through Film (in Russian), Chinese Literacy and Labor Market Development (in Chinese), Globalization and the Valuing and Viewing of Artistic Creations (in Italian), and Sustainable Building in Spanish Speaking Countries (in Spanish). An additional mixed Arabic language-culture class will focus on Mideast Gender and Language. The sustainable building and green labeling FLACs are part of a new thematic emphasis that includes development of a course on Economic Principles and Business Applications of Global Sustainability. Two major course investments will particularly respond to the national resource mandate of CIBERs by combining specialized areas of UF expertise to address national needs. The first is in the area of retailing. Well-known examples and statistical rankings document struggles of US retailers abroad: Wal-Mart’s recent disinvestment from South Korea and Germany and its failure after a decade to post a profit in China; the inability of Home Depot and J.C. Penney to establish viable footholds in the thought-to-be-lucrative Chilean retail sector, and; between 2007 and 2009, Sears being dropped off Deloitte’s list of Top 10 global retailers and replaced by Germany’s Aldi. IRET-Brazil (International Retail Education and Training-Brazil) addresses the need for enhanced international retail training. It links exceptional UF industry expertise with UF Latin American expertise and partners both with the Center for Retailing Excellence at Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) in Sao Paulo. The team will produce multimedia modules on retailing in Brazil that are appropriate for infusion into marketing and retailing courses. The second major initiative addresses an expressed priority of the 2009 CIBER competition—to enhance training in particular foreign languages the US Department of Education has identified as priority LCTLs (Less Commonly Taught Languages). Geography has historically constrained development of US capacity in the 15 African LCTLs that appear on the list; instruction is typically available only on site at a handful of Title VI Centers for African Studies and a similar small number of non-Title VI
11. 8 centers. Building national expertise in the languages requires harnessing technology to provide wider geographical access to the centers of pedagogical expertise. The proposed Web-based Basic and Business Akan does this through combining UF expertise in web- based business program delivery, web-based German and Chinese training, and Akan language instruction. Both business and journalism students at UF will benefit from a new class on IB Reporting and the Research Tutorial Abroad program will be offered on a regular basis for students interested in IB research in Africa. Students enrolled in Florida institutions of higher education outside of UF will be offered new global business classes through continuation of the EFIBI program. A second phase of the partnership with Valencia Community College will add new prototypes for enhancing IB education at Hispanic- serving institutions. Also continued from the 2006-2010 period will be the networking programs and UF CIBER support for Business in Brazil and the International Financial Markets Tour. Five new STSAs will be available to students: Sustainable Agriculture in Central America; EU Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards; Retailing in Brazil; Cuban Agricultural Markets, and; Fly with the Flowers. The latter introduces a new STSA experience. While most focus on a particular world region (or region and discipline), Fly with the Flowers focuses on a global market. It travels to Miami, Bogota and Amsterdam teaching multidisciplinary perspectives on issues in global market competition such as conflict and collaboration between developed and developing economies, technology-based v. resource-based national comparative advantage, and differing concepts of sustainability and ethics. It is being developed jointly by UF academic experts in the business and science aspects of the global market in cut flowers, CIBER Director Dr. Carol West and Chair of UF’s Environmental Horticulture Department, Dr. Terril Nell. They are joined by industry practitioners in the state who handle the 40,000 boxes of cut flowers that arrive daily at Miami Airport and represent approximately two thirds of the cut flowers sold in the US. II. Serving faculty UF CIBER serves faculty on campus, regionally and nationally through IB course development, delivery and research grants, through workshops and conferences, and through other specialized IB faculty development programs. A. IB course development, delivery and research grants New courses serving students detailed in Sections I.A and I.B above were the products of UF CIBER course (or course module) development grants. Typically, the Center does not fund course delivery and in fact requires the grant recipient’s department assure delivery will be scheduled. However, numerous exceptions to this rule were made for foreign language courses or culture courses taught by foreign language faculty. The global “Great Recession” that dominated the last funding cycle diminished state revenues and reduced educational endowments, creating fiscal crises that necessitated program
12. 9 cutbacks in many institutions of higher education. News reports from around the country suggested foreign language departments bore a disproportionate share of those cutbacks. UF was no exception. In order to continue progress in foreign business language and culture training, CIBER needed to provide some funding for new course delivery as well as new course development in those units. In addition to serving UF and regional Florida faculty through course development and delivery grants, UF CIBER served business foreign language faculty nationwide by participating in the multi-CIBER Business Language Research and Training (BLRT) initiative. BLRT awards grants for proposed innovations in business foreign language instruction through a national competitive process. Major 2006-2010 CIBER research grants to faculty in journalism, business and agriculture supported studies on determinants of competitiveness in global mobile and media industries, impacts of Homeland Security policies on the supply of agricultural labor, cross-country analysis of factors affecting advancement of women to leadership positions in corporations, standards setting in cooperative technical organizations, securing the global supply chain in different Asian markets, and strategies for diffusing anti-American, anti-capitalism and anti-globalization sentiments in major Latin American countries. Two additional research awards were commissioned CIBER studies. Business language pioneer, Dr. Christine Uber Grosse, was funded to update her classic 1980’s survey of US business language instruction as part of UF CIBER’s hosting the 2008 CIBER Business Language Conference (see Section II.B below). Dr. Renata Serra, economist with the UF Center for African Studies and Coordinator of Cotton Research for the global African Power and Politics Program, prepared a background piece on child labor for use with IB case studies on the subject. Research grants often don’t produce a final product in the same funding cycle. Long lags in the academic research, review and publication process can push final publication dates into the next grant period. Indeed, research products may continue to appear in even later grant cycles as the faculty member pursues new questions that emerged in the initial research. Hence, it can be difficult to determine when research products of a CIBER grant end. Conservative estimates indicate a substantial body of IB publications during 2006- 2010 attributable to UF CIBER research grants. They included articles in International Journal on Media Management, Journal of Media Business Studies, International Journal of Mobile Marketing, New Media and Society, Choices, Economics Letters, Comparative Studies in Society and History, American Behavioral Scientist, Journal of African Business, Journal of Labor Economics, ICFAI Journal of Mergers and Acquisitions; Review of International Economics, Economic Theory, Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Emerging Markets Review, Journal of International Money and Finance, Applied Economics Letters, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, International Review of Economics and Finance, and the Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal. Additionally published were numerous book chapters and a case study book supporting the teaching of Business Portuguese, Brazilians Working with
13. 10 Americans: Cultural Case Studies, by Orlando Kelm and Mary Risner (University of Texas Press). See Appendix 6 for a sample summary of CIBER-sponsored faculty research publications and Appendix 7 for a sample abstract from UF CIBER-supported doctoral dissertation research. B. Workshops and conferences One of the first programs launched by UF CIBER in 1998 was the CIBER Multidisciplinary IB Research Workshop and it continues to be a key initiative fostering IB interest and development across campus. Faculty and graduate students from more than 18 departments and eight colleges at UF have attended this monthly luncheon seminar series. Funded by WCBA and organized by CIBER, the workshop keeps IB- interested faculty from diverse locales networked and provides an informal forum for feedback on CIBER plans. Its featuring of an external speaker from a new area has often been the first step in expanding UF CIBER programs to additional disciplines. Exceptionally prestigious IB researchers are brought to the UF campus through the annual Bradbury Distinguished Lecture on International Economics, co-sponsored by the Bradbury endowment, CIBER, and UF’s Public Policy Research Center. During 2006- 2010, presentations were made on current topics of globalization and growth by four distinguished scholars in the field: Dr. Maurice Obstfeld (University of California, Berkekey); Dr. Phillippe Aghion (Harvard University); Dr. Robert Solow (MIT), and; Dr. Dani Rodrik (Harvard University). More than 150 language professionals from around the nation attended the 2008 CIBER Business Language Conference, organized and hosted by UF CIBER in St. Petersburg, Florida, April 9-11, 2008. The conference is the premier annual national meeting for faculty engaged in teaching foreign languages to the professions. The unexpectedly high attendance (up over 50% from 2007) reflected meticulous planning efforts of the Program Chair, UF Senior Lecturer in Spanish, Dr. Greg Moreland, and careful attention to logistics details provided by CIBER Assistant Director, Isabelle Winzeler. Conference sessions addressed use of technology in business language instruction, perspectives of business professionals and business professors, integrating culture and language education, innovative applications of business case studies and advertisements, and nine specific foreign languages—Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, and Hindi (See Appendix 11 for a conference agenda.) The UF Title VI Centers of African Studies and International Business Education and Research jointly hosted the 2008 Annual Meetings of the International Academy of African Business and Development (IAABD) at the University of Florida Hilton Conference Center, May 20-24, 2008.
14. 11 Total attendance was 158 academics from 19 countries, including 10 African nations. Nine sets of four concurrent sessions accommodated 125 scholarly research presentations that spanned a broad range of multi-disciplinary issues related to the conference theme of “Global and Local Dynamics in African Business and Development.” Plenary sessions included presentations by two African Ambassadors to the US (Republic of Zambia and Malawi) and the Director of the US Department of Commerce African Office. C. Other specialized faculty IB development programs Two-week study abroad faculty tours provide background on the business climate in a major world region, create the personal overseas examples that make IB “come alive” in the classroom, and offer networking opportunities for future IB teaching and research projects. Each tour is a combination of lectures and site visits, organized by a lead CIBER. Eight offerings were available during the last grant cycle: Western Europe (University of Memphis CIBER); Eastern Europe (University of Pittsburgh CIBER); MERCOSUR—Brazil, Argentina and Chile (FIU CIBER); China (University of Denver CIBER), India-Delhi (University of Connecticut CIBER), India-Mumbai/Bangalore (FIU CIBER); Sub-Saharan Africa (University of South Carolina CIBER); Vietnam (University of Hawaii and University of Wisconsin CIBERs). Each of the four Asian tours occurs in the first half of January, a time that conflicts with teaching for many UF faculty. Consequently, UF CIBER generally co-sponsors and funds participation in the late May Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and MERCOSUR tours. WCBA annually supports tour participation by four or five business faculty (or staff) and CIBER funds at least one non-UF business faculty member to participate on the Sub-Saharan Africa tour. (Sponsored faculty are identified in Appendix 8 that lists all UF faculty receiving direct CIBER support 2006-2010.) UF foreign language faculty from Romance language, Slavic language, Asian language and African language programs benefitted from multiple smaller travel grants permitting their participation in national conferences on business foreign language instruction. Conference travel grants were also provided to faculty outside UF as part of the EFIBI program (see Section I.B above and Appendix 9). Faculty from the University of West Florida and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University received CIBER support for participation in the MERCOSUR and Vietnam two-week study tours abroad and two faculty from Valencia Community College were funded to travel to Puerto Rico to make business and educational contacts there as part of the specially funded Hispanic-serving institution (HSI) initiative. (See Section I.B above.) On the UF campus, specialized FDIB (Faculty Development in International Business) programs focused on enhancing ability of foreign language faculty to make greater use of technology in teaching business foreign languages. Background workshops on the topic were provided for all faculty and follow-up grants were awarded to those developing specific plans for greater use of technology in their classes.
15. 12 Among non-UF campuses in Florida, UF CIBER has concentrated on providing FDIB opportunities to faculty at small and/or minority-serving institutions. Faculty course development grants made through the EFIBI program, as well as travel grants noted earlier in this section, have been significant components of this emphasis. Throughout the four-year grant period, the Center also participated in the Globalizing Business Schools CIBER consortium program. A joint endeavor of 10 CIBERs and the Institute for International Public Policy, the initiative pairs each participating CIBER with one of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Each CIBER assists its HBCU partner in preparing an internationalization plan for its business curriculum and in writing a BIE grant application to fund plan implementation. The CIBER also sponsors participation of HBCU faculty in workshops for internationalizing business classes. UF CIBER’s most recent HBCU partner was Bethune-Cookman University in Daytona Beach. Although plans for submitting a grant proposal proceeded on target in Fall 2006 and early Spring 2007, they subsequently faltered with the departure of a key faculty member from Bethune-Cookman. Faculty from the university did, however, participate in the internationalization workshops. In Fall 2006, UF CIBER assisted faculty at Florida A&M University (FAMU) in the preparation of an application for a second two-year BIE grant. FAMU was UF CIBER’s Globalizing Business Schools partner in the previous grant cycle. Its 2004 BIE application was funded and the IB program implemented was recognized for excellence in February 2007 when FAMU was designated a winner of the Andrew Heiskell Award for Innovative International Education in the area of study abroad. The second FAMU BIE application submitted with UF CIBER assistance in Fall 2006 was also funded. D. Upcoming for faculty New grants for faculty research stress topics emerging in the aftermath of the “Great Recession” which saw the US unemployment rate double from 5% to 10%, consumer confidence plunge 80% to a record low in more than 40 years of data collection, real estate values plummet 20 to 30 percent, and $8 trillion in US stock market wealth vanish in a year. Waves of Wall Street layoffs drowned business student career expectations and those continuing in business programs increasingly look for non-monetary awards or “doing good through business.” The 2010-14 theme of sustainability (noted in Section I.E above) carries over to research programs with specific focus on developing multidisciplinary studies of African sustainable tourism. The “Great Recession” also heightened interest in policy, regulatory, and institutional frameworks as banking experts unraveled how systemic risk got built into financial markets. New “IB frameworks” research pursues issues related to: (a) use of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) and constraints on application of that convention; (b) the cost of dual compliance in US-EU auditing and financial accounting; (c) an overview text/business reference, The European Union for Americans: Law, Economics and Politics of Doing Business in the EU, and; (d) implications for MNCs of conclusions emerging from the Africa Power and Politics Program (APPP).
16. 13 APPP is a 5-year global project with the mission of “discovering institutions that work for poor people.” Funded by the Overseas Development Institute in London, the study is being carried out by a consortium of research organizations and policy think-tanks in France, Ghana, Niger, Uganda, the UK and the US. UF’s Center for African Studies is the lead US institution on the project. Business aspects of APPP focus on government institutions and indigenous firms. However, APPP institutional policy recommendations will have implications for MNCs operating in Africa, including those designing development-effective corporate social responsibility programs as part of the investment agenda. UF CIBER will fund the additional research required to elucidate the implications for MNCs. Such linking of UF CIBER research funding to other studies also characterizes the CISG and dual compliance investigations noted above. In particular, expensive primary data collection has been financed by other organizations and the CIBER role is to fund investigation of specific CIBER-relevant research questions these new data sets might be able to address. A similar model, but one applied in a theoretical as opposed to empirical context, underlies the proposed research study Heterogeneous Firms and US IB Competitiveness. The new theoretical heterogeneous firm models, introduced in Elhanan Helpman’s seminal 2006 Journal of Economic Literature article, have potentially profound implications for studying whether a particular policy or program contributes to the “ability of US business to prosper in the global economy.” While not funding the extensive basic development of these models that is currently underway, CIBER does plan funding study of the implications of such models for evaluation of US global competitiveness in the wake of trade and sustainability policy changes. In contrast, the research on African sustainable tourism takes a “seed funding” as opposed to “follow-up” funding approach. Its purpose is to facilitate small interdisciplinary studies of the topic that get UF faculty from diverse colleges interacting with each other on analysis of issues. The small studies, and more importantly, the established interaction, can then be the basis for attracting larger grants requiring such integration of disciplines and perspectives. Proposed research on Converging Digital Media Markets in Latin America and The Evolving Cuban Economy encourage UF faculty to apply established research expertise on a topic in a particular world region, or set of world regions, to a new geographical area of special CIBER emphasis. UF CIBER will host two academic conferences in the new funding cycle, each associated with a research or teaching initiative. With funding support from both CIBER and WCBA, Business Law Professor Larry DiMatteo is finalizing plans for a 2011 conference of international CISG scholars to (1) produce an edited volume summarizing current international issues and scholarly research findings on CISG application and; (2) prepare business practitioner materials that address obstacles to wider application of the CISG as revealed in the recent studies. In 2013, CIBER will fund African Language Associate Professor James Essegbey to organize a conference on Access and Effectiveness: Use of Technology in Teaching African LCTLs. It will bring together African language academics from around the country to benchmark computerized
17. 14 strategic African LCTL pedagogy, identify an agenda for future research, and provide expert external evaluation of the Web-based Akan initiative (see Section I.E above.) Programs for faculty that continue in form from 2006-2010, but change in terms of content and participants, include:(a) the monthly CIBER Multidisciplinary IB Research Workshop; (b) annual co-sponsorship of the CIBER Business Language Conference; (c) annual funding for at least four business faculty to participate on CIBER-led two week FDIB study tours abroad, and; (d) annual sponsorship of a non-business faculty member to participate on the two-week Sub-Saharan Africa study tour. Despite the fact the new funding cycle has just begun, (a) is already producing new CIBER linkages across campus. In this case, the linkage is with the Harn Museum of Art. In January 2011, Jeanne Steiner, Senior Vice President for Corporate Social Responsibility and Art Outreach Manager, Bank of America, will speak to the workshop on the topic “Corporate Art Collections and Corporate Global Social Responsibility.” Planning the jointly sponsored Harn-CIBER event has resulted in broader discussions of potential future collaborations that address IB issues in one of the oldest global markets, the market for artistic creations. Participants in (c) will have some new tour options: Russia (led by the University of Connecticut CIBER) and MENA-Middle East and North Africa (led by CIBERs at Brigham Young University, University of Colorado-Denver, Temple University and the University of South Carolina). Through continuation of the EFIBI grants program, typically underserved faculty at smaller institutions of higher education in Florida will be given opportunity to develop IB skills and to implement innovative IB training programs. EFIBI’s flexibility in adjusting to diverse institutional and programmatic constraints allows it to succeed where other more structured internationalization programs would fail. Faculty at Valencia Community College will be implementing Phase II of the HSI Community College IB prototype development initiative. Both IB modules for specialized career tracks and more in-depth IB experiences for business students are being examined. As in Phase I, many faculty will benefit from special workshops on how to incorporate IB modules into classes. Successful modules/programs will be published on the UF CIBER web site for use by community college faculty nationwide, especially those who serve Hispanic populations of Puerto Rican heritage. High school and community college foreign language faculty will be the foci of a new initiative, NOBLE (Network of Business Language Educators). It is predicated on the observation that in today’s economy, career satisfaction and success are often enhanced by participation in networks of similar colleagues. IB-interested foreign language faculty in community colleges and high schools lack established, supportive professional networks. While they may periodically attend national conferences such as the CIBER Business Language Conference, sporadic funding support results in sporadic attendance, preventing their becoming an integral part of networks emerging from such university- oriented meetings. And they are only a small part of state foreign language teachers associations that are dominated by instructors from standard (non-business) elementary
18. 15 and intermediary foreign language classrooms. NOBLE creates a regional (statewide) network for this business language group. CIBER funding will support (1) web site development and facilitator compensation; (2) travel to meet with the Florida Department of Education in developing foreign business language initiatives that support high school IB and Finance Academy Programs; (3) an annual meeting; (4) curriculum module development awards; and (5) professional development conference travel. III. Serving business Business outreach programs fund publications and presentations that explain practical IB implications of recent scholarly research and/or engage university research expertise to address IB issues raised by businesses. Core programs are repeated on a regular basis; other programs are one-time activities. A. Core programs While content of all business outreach programs varies year-to-year in response to changing issues and new developments, some initiatives have been repeated regularly in structure. These are the core UF CIBER business outreach programs. The signature core program serving state, regional and national businesses for over a decade has been annual publication of the Latin American Business Environment Report. The approximately 50- page study, disseminated to over 2000 educators and businesses, provides a comprehensive examination of Latin American business conditions. It tracks social, political and economic trends both for the region as a whole and for its 20 largest markets individually. Core annual business conference programs 2006-2010 were the Legal and Policy in the Americas annual conference (in collaboration with the UF Levin College of Law), the Florida International Summit (in collaboration with other university globalization centers in Florida and a consortium of state and local economic development agencies), and the National Forum on Trade Policy (in collaboration with the other 30 CIBERs ). Target audience of the first is legal scholars and legal practitioners in both the US and South America. To serve such geographically dispersed constituencies, the conference location alternates between Gainesville and a Latin American city. CIBER programmatic input particularly concentrates on three of the conference’s eight major sessions: The Financial War Against Organized Crime and Terrorism; Lessons and Challenges of MERCOSUR’s Trade, Business and Dispute Settlement Systems; Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Sustainability. Similarly, UF CIBER provides planning expertise, content expertise, and funding support to the Florida International Summit. The 2007-2010 programs were held in Tampa or Jacksonville and focused on the themes “Trade, Logistics and Transportation” (2007), “The State of Global Finance and Trade (2008), “Florida Business Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean” (2009), and “Opportunities in a Transformed Global
19. 16 Economy” (2010). The National Forum on Trade Policy addressed regional differences in the impact of national trade programs, each year emphasizing issues of significance to businesses in the region of the conference locale. During the 2006-2010 grant period, forums were held in Seattle, WA, Stamford, CT, and San Diego, CA. (A fourth conference scheduled for Austin, TX was cancelled due to weather conditions.) B. Special opportunities programs The repeated formats and planning groups of core conference programs use CIBER funds efficiently by minimizing organizational expense and, in addition, the conferences provide valuable on-going networking forums for regular attendees. However, a one- time conference addressing a timely topic for a new audience can yield high education and training benefits. Hence, optimal use of CIBER business outreach funds includes both core programs and programs that respond to special opportunities as they arise. UF CIBER supported five such special opportunities conferences for business 2006-2010 and was primary organizer of a sixth. (See Appendix 10.) The former group included three on utility policy organized by UF’s Public Utility Research Center. A fourth featured representatives of the United Nations, the International Advertising Association, Latin American foundations and global public relations agencies presenting case studies and best practices on the topic Multi-Sector Partnerships and Strategic Communications in the Americas: Business, Community and Government. The two-day February 2008 program was organized and funded by UF’s Center for Latin American Studies, College of Journalism and Communications, and CIBER. In addition to the 175 live attendees, many more viewed the conference by webcast in six Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Panama, Argentina, and Mexico) and three European ones (UK, Portugal and Spain), as well as the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Organized by the University of Maryland CIBER, UF CIBER co-sponsored the day and a half long conference on Global Security: Challenges and Opportunities, June 16-17, 2008 in Washington, D.C. Keynote addresses were delivered by Jay M. Cohen, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, US Department of Homeland Security, and Ronald Knode, Leading Edge Forum Associate, Computer Sciences Corporation. Panelists from business discussed technology, innovation and global security, doing business with the Department of Homeland Security, and enterprise resilience in an age of turbulence. June 17 featured a journalist panel discussing “America’s War on Terrorism and Implications for Business.” Panelists included a former CNN White House Correspondent, US Economic Correspondent of the Financial Times, Washington Bureau Chief for Al-Safir (a Lebanese Daily) and a Reuters reporter. Both attendance (75) and evaluations (9.5 average on a scale of 1 to 10) were higher than anticipated for the October 2008 conference organized by UF CIBER and held in Tampa on Doing Business with Africa: Practice, Issues and Potential. Plenary sessions featured World Bank and Global Insight, Inc. Africa experts. Concurrent workshops drew on multiple Florida academic, government, and business sources for specialized African IB expertise on cultural, regulatory, and logistics issues. Appendix 12 details the conference agenda.
20. 17 C. Upcoming for business A second core annual outreach publication will be introduced in Spring 2011, the Sub- Saharan Africa Business Environment Report, similar in format to the Latin American Business Environment Report. Partnership with business faculty at the University of South Carolina CIBER brings African IB expertise to the project that complements expertise at UF. Multiple experts are needed to effectively cover the diverse continent which lacks obvious regionalization, contains a large number of countries at low levels of development, and is home to numerous different languages. The new publication will be featured at a second Doing Business with Africa outreach conference scheduled for Miami in the 2012-2013 grant year, beginning a potential move of that event from the “special opportunity” category to the “core” category. Funding for other special opportunity conferences and conference co-sponsorships has been budgeted, but is not committed at the current time. These funds give UF CIBER future flexibility in responding to need for business outreach programs on topics not foreseen at the current time. IV. Evaluating our service On-going evaluation of UF CIBER programs is a critical component of serving students, faculty and businesses effectively. UF CIBER has long had evaluation activities that (a) monitor initiative progress by specifying intermediary products to be delivered or milestones to be met and (b) address impact by collecting and summarizing available indicators (e.g., number of students enrolled in a class, average student evaluations of a class, and number of research presentations at professional conferences). While (a) has continued, (b) has been replaced by first asking specific questions on outcome significance and impact and then designing and implementing evaluation instruments that address those questions. In addition, greater emphasis has been placed on making evaluation outcomes useful to others. A. Addressing new evaluation questions Traditionally collected data on numbers of students enrolled in a program and the average student evaluation of that program provide some indication of the impact of initiatives serving students. They do not, however, address a basic question, “What, if anything, did the students learn?” Pre/post program tests have been introduced to quantify learning. While this is relatively straightforward when learning takes the form of knowledge acquisition, not all learning is of that type. During 2006-2010, special attention was given to defining and measuring learning in the context of short term study abroad (STSA) programs. Absorbing factual information about the region visited cannot be the learning goal of an STSA; facts can be learned from on-campus research. Nor can skill acquisition be the goal (gaining expertise in conducting business in the country); the length of visit is too
21. 18 short. Primary potential impact is changes in student perceptions of challenges to, and opportunities for, doing business in the country or perceptions of how the conduct of business differs from that in the US. Pre/post tests asking open-ended questions on what students think are the most significant challenges, opportunities and/or differences can measure this type of learning. Although more difficult to analyze than simple quantitative rankings, qualitative responses on the pre and post STSA questionnaires were exciting in what they revealed about the nature of learning on these tours and how participant perceptions changed. Evaluation of the 2008 International Financial Markets Study Tour to Brazil (see Section I.C above) illustrates results. Three questions asked of students on the pre and post tests were: (a) List in rank order (from highest to lowest) five reasons why you think Brazil might be a good place to do business (1 = highest, 5 = lowest); (b) List in rank order (from highest to lowest) what you think are five of the biggest business opportunities in Brazil (1 = highest, 5 = lowest), and; (c) List in rank order (from highest to lowest) five factors that you think are the biggest challenges for doing business in Brazil(1 = highest, 5 = lowest). To analyze test results, responses were grouped into broad categories so changes in the distribution of perceptions could be compared. For example, “high inflation,” “lack of monetary discipline,” and “macroeconomic volatility” were similar responses that could all be categorized as “economic instability.” Judgment was required with regard to which responses to use and how to use them. Beyond the highest ranks, responses were considerably dispersed making grouping difficult. As a first approach for (b) and (c), responses to ranks (1) and (2) were combined and used; only responses to rank (1) were used for (a). The analysis indicated substantial shifts as a consequence of the STSA in all three of (a) to (c) above. For (a)—top reason Brazil is a good place to do business—pre and post STSA responses were grouped into six categories: (1) high growth rate/emerging market; (2) size (population and/or economy); (3) natural resources; (4) low risk/stable; (5) low cost labor; and (6) other. Percent of responses for each of the six categories respectively for the pre test (post test) were: 34.8% (19.0%); 13.0% (14.3%); 21.7% (4.8%); 13.0% (42.9%); 8.7% (0.0%); 8.7% (19.0%). Categories (1) and (3)—high growth emerging BRIC market with a lot of natural resources—is stereotypical Brazil and dominates in the pre-test, the two categories combined accounting for 56.5% of the top ranked answers. In contrast, there was some, but relatively little, appreciation for the stability and reliability Brazil has achieved with category (4) accounting for only 13.0% of responses. In the post test, (1) and (3) combined drop to less than 25% of responses and (4) mushroomed to 42.9%. However, stereotypes are not always moderated; they can also be reinforced. The most common issue ranked (1) or (2) in response to greatest challenges to doing business in Brazil was “lack of rule of law” which includes crime, corruption, lack of transparency in the legal system, etc. While accounting for 20% of responses in the pre test, its share climbed to 27.5% in the post test. Also increasing in importance in the post test relative
22. 19 to the pre test were high taxes (0.0 % to 15%) and social infrastructure (6.7% to 17.5%), the latter including income inequality, lack of education, etc. Reflecting pre/post shifts in responses to (a), “economic instability” declined from 10% to 2.5%. In general, perceptions concentrated on fewer items in the post test with the top five specific (non- “other”) categories accounting for 87.5% of responses while in the pre test, the top five accounted for 64.4% of responses. In terms of (b)—best Brazilian sectors to invest in—three sectors gained markedly between the pre and post tests; oil and gas (7.0% of responses to 22.6%), ethanol/alternative fuels (11.6% to 17.9%), finance and real estate (11.6% to 19.0%); and two declined markedly, agriculture and forestry (20.9% to 4.8%) and transport/trade/tourism (18.6% to 4.8%). The former decline is consistent with the sharp drop between pre and post test in the ranking of natural resources as a reason Brazil is a good place to do business in. In general, perception changes measured in UF CIBER STSA programs were in the direction IB professionals would agree with—negating outdated stereotypes and emphasizing issues important for current and future US competitiveness in global markets. Administering pre/post tests is generally less feasible in the context of business outreach programs and can detract from event delivery. However, some more precise information on program value-added was obtained by adding open-ended questions on positive and negative aspects of the program to the evaluation survey. Especially useful were similar observations from different conferences. In particular, attendees at both the Latin American Business Symposium and Career Workshop (Section I.D) and the Doing Business with Africa Conference (Section III.B) emphasized that major conference strengths were diversity of the speaker backgrounds, the mix of presenters from government, academia, business, business consulting and NGOs. Both conferences were organized by CIBER staff and similar ones are scheduled for the 2010-2014 grant period. The similar unprompted responses on format from two conferences differing in terms of topic and target audience affirm value of the format. They also affirm the CIBER estimate of appropriate mix of perspectives. A second question not always directly addressed in pre-2006 evaluation was “How can the program be improved?” Evaluation during 2006-2010 garnered considerably more information by (a) adding the open-ended question directly to an evaluation survey; (b) asking explicitly about program short-comings on the evaluation questionnaire; (c) conducting post-program focus group interviews and; (d) requesting formal post program evaluation by the initiative coordinator. Additional evaluation activities (c) and (d) were especially useful when a new course or a new course module was introduced by a pedagogically-adept instructor. Little is learned about success of the innovation (or how it might be improved) from standard student evaluations when the professor typically scores high on such evaluations in a variety of contexts.
The Centers for International Business Education and Research (CIBERs) were created by Congress under the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 ...
The Centers for International Business Education program provides funding to schools of business for curriculum development, research, and training on ...
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