Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle

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Information about Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle
Education

Published on November 23, 2009

Author: biologyteacher60

Source: slideshare.net

Chapter 8 Notes Cellular Transportation And The Cell Cycle

Cell Transportation : 2 main types 1. Passive transport : Does not require energy from the cell Moves downhill, with the concentration gradient

1. Passive transport : Does not require energy from the cell

Moves downhill, with the concentration gradient

Cellular Transportation Type 2 2 . Active Transport : Requires energy to occur. Moves uphill, against the concentration gradient.

2 . Active Transport : Requires energy to occur.

Moves uphill, against the concentration gradient.

Passive Transport (No energy required) 3-Types

3-Types

1 st Type Passive Transport Simple Diffusion : Movement of any substance from areas of higher to lower concentrations diffusion animation

Simple Diffusion : Movement of any substance from areas of higher to lower concentrations

diffusion animation

2 nd Type Passive Transport Osmosis: Movement of water from areas of higher to lower concentrations

Osmosis: Movement of water from areas of higher to lower concentrations

3 rd Type Passive Transport Facilitated diffusion : Movement of substances from higher to lower concentration with help from a protein molecule Animation: How Facilitated Diffusion Works

Facilitated diffusion : Movement of substances from higher to lower concentration with help from a protein molecule

Animation: How Facilitated Diffusion Works

2-Types of Active Transport (Energy Required) 1 . Exocytosis : The expulsion of particles from the cell. 2. Endocytosis : surrounding and engulfing particles. Pinocytosis : Cell drinking – the cell takes in liquids. Phagocytosis : Surrounding and taking in of large particles.

1 . Exocytosis : The expulsion of particles from the cell.

2. Endocytosis : surrounding and engulfing particles.

Pinocytosis : Cell drinking – the cell takes in liquids.

Phagocytosis : Surrounding and taking in of large particles.

Phagocytosis Animation: Phagocytosis

Animation: Phagocytosis

Solute vs Solvent Solute : The dissolved substance in a liquid. Solvent : The liquid that the solute is dissolved in: Usually water

Solute : The dissolved substance in a liquid.

Solvent : The liquid that the solute is dissolved in: Usually water

Types of solutions Isotonic solution Concentrations of solute are equal in the cell and the solution. (cell=solution) Water moves back and forth at the same rate. Water in =Water Out

Concentrations of solute are equal in the cell and the solution. (cell=solution)

Water moves back and forth at the same rate.

Water in =Water Out

Hyp-O-tonic solution (Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic) Hyp O tonic : Concentrations of solute are higher in the cell than in the solution (cell-higher, solution-lower) Water moves into the cell. The cell swells and can burst.

Hyp O tonic : Concentrations of solute are higher in the cell than in the solution (cell-higher, solution-lower)

Water moves into the cell.

The cell swells and can burst.

Hypertonic Solution Concentrations of solute are lower in the cell than in the solution (cell-lower, solution-higher) Water moves out of the cell . The cell shrinks .

Concentrations of solute are lower in the cell than in the solution (cell-lower, solution-higher)

Water moves out of the cell .

The cell shrinks .

Limits to cell size A cells size is limited, so organisms grow by cellular division. The cells of a baby are the same size as the cells of an adult.

A cells size is limited, so organisms grow by cellular division.

The cells of a baby are the same size as the cells of an adult.

So… Why Can’t cells just grow larger???

Three factors that limit the growth of cells 1. Diffusion across cell surface. 2. Shortage of DNA. 3. Surface to volume ratio.

1. Diffusion across cell surface.

2. Shortage of DNA.

3. Surface to volume ratio.

Diffusion Diffusion is efficient over short distances, but becomes inefficient and slow over large distances. So…cells that are large have a more difficult time getting nutrients into the cell and waste products out of the cell.

Diffusion is efficient over short distances, but becomes inefficient and slow over large distances.

So…cells that are large have a more difficult time getting nutrients into the cell and waste products out of the cell.

DNA A cell cannot survive without sufficient amounts of DNA to make necessary proteins Unusually large cells must have multiple nuclei in order to supply needed DNA

A cell cannot survive without sufficient amounts of DNA to make necessary proteins

Unusually large cells must have multiple nuclei in order to supply needed DNA

Surface Area to Volume Ratio As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases faster than its surface area

As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases faster than its surface area

Cell Reproduction Mitosis : Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle) The process by which one cell divides into two cells, both identical to the original parent cell

Mitosis : Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle)

The process by which one cell divides into two cells, both identical to the original parent cell

The Dreaded “ C ” Words! Chromatin Chromosomes Chromatid Centromeres Centioles

Chromatin

Chromosomes

Chromatid

Centromeres

Centioles

Chromatin Relaxed DNA.

Relaxed DNA.

Chromosomes Condensed DNA. DNA that is preparing to undergo cellular division Can now be seen with a microscope.

Condensed DNA.

DNA that is preparing to undergo cellular division

Can now be seen with a microscope.

Chromatids and Centromeres Sister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicated parent chromosome. Centromeres: The structure that joins two sister chromatids.

Sister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicated parent chromosome.

Centromeres: The structure that joins two sister chromatids.

Chromatin and Chromosome

Centrioles- Produce the spindle and aid in replication

The Cell Cycle The process of asexua l reproduction (mitosis) of the cell Contains three major parts 1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis

The process of asexua l reproduction (mitosis) of the cell

Contains three major parts

1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis

The Cell Cycle

Part One of the Cell Cycle Interphase The cell spends the majority of its life in interphase. A time in which the cell is preparing for division.

The cell spends the majority of its life in interphase.

A time in which the cell is preparing for division.

Interphase 3-Parts G-1 : Maturation. S-Phase : DNA replicates - makes a duplicate copy of itself. G-2 : Organelles replicate and final preparations for division.

G-1 : Maturation.

S-Phase : DNA replicates - makes a duplicate copy of itself.

G-2 : Organelles replicate and final preparations for division.

Mitosis Division of the nucleus 4-phases P rophase M etaphase A naphase T elophase PMAT

Division of the nucleus

4-phases

P rophase

M etaphase

A naphase

T elophase

PMAT

Parts of Mitosis Prophase The chromatin condense to form visible chromosomes The nuclear envelope begins to dissolve The centrioles divide and begin to migrate to opposite sides of the cell

The chromatin condense to form visible chromosomes

The nuclear envelope begins to dissolve

The centrioles divide and begin to migrate to opposite sides of the cell

Parts of Mitosis Cont… Metaphase Centrioles have moved to opposite sides of the cell The spindle has formed Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell across the equator

Centrioles have moved to opposite sides of the cell

The spindle has formed

Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell across the equator

Parts of Mitosis Cont… Anaphase The centromeres split and the spindles pull the sister chromatids apart toward opposite sides of the cell

The centromeres split and the spindles pull the sister chromatids apart toward opposite sides of the cell

Parts of Mitosis Cont… Telophase The chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell. The nuclear envelope begins to reform around each set of chromosomes at opposite sides of the cell.

The chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell.

The nuclear envelope begins to reform around each set of chromosomes at opposite sides of the cell.

Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm Begins to occur during telophase Different in plants and animal cells

Division of the cytoplasm

Begins to occur during telophase

Different in plants and animal cells

Cytokinesis Cont… Animal cells : the plasma membrane pinches in to form two separate cells Plant cells : A rigid cell plate begins to form between the two new cells, dividing them and becoming a cell wall.

Animal cells : the plasma membrane pinches in to form two separate cells

Plant cells : A rigid cell plate begins to form between the two new cells, dividing them and becoming a cell wall.

 

mitosis animation

Control of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle is controlled by proteins and enzymes Contact with other cells causes cell to stop dividing. Cell stop dividing when they lose contact with other cells

The cell cycle is controlled by proteins and enzymes

Contact with other cells causes cell to stop dividing.

Cell stop dividing when they lose contact with other cells

Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth resulting in tumors Metastasis: Cells break lose and travel through the circulatory system spreading throughout the body.

Uncontrolled cell growth resulting in tumors

Metastasis: Cells break lose and travel through the circulatory system spreading throughout the body.

Causes of Cancer Environmental factors that damage genes. Ex: Cigarette smoke, UV rays from the sun, air and water pollution, viruses

Environmental factors that damage genes.

Ex: Cigarette smoke, UV rays from the sun, air and water pollution, viruses

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