Cell Structure and Function 1

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Published on December 9, 2008

Author: karuhetti

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  w’fmd’i’ Wiia fm, yr Ôj úoHdj Slide3:  w’fmd’i’ ^Wiia fm,& Wmldrl mdvï ud,dj fuu jevigyk m,uq jrg ilia lrK ,oafoa Y%jHdndê; YsIHhl= i|ydh’ ta Tyqg foaYK igyka ,shd.ekSug we;s wmyiqj u.yerùughs’ Tyq ,shd .;a igyka j, wvqmdvq ksjfia§ fuu jevigyka ksÍlaIKh lsÍu u.ska ilialr .ekSug Wmfoia fok,§’ ;jo igyka fmd; mdvï lrkjdg úl,amhla f,ig mß.Kl jevigyklska mdvï lsÍu m%shckl jkjd ksielh’ tksid fuh yqoq Power Point Presentation tlla fkdfõ’ fuh l=vd fldgia j,g lvd .==rejrhdg wjYH mߧ Power Point Presentation f,i ilialr.; hq;=h’ Slide4:  fuu bÈßm;a lsÍï jevigyk mdie,a isiqkaf.a iy .=reNj;=kaf.a ld¾hh myiq lsÍu i|yd ilia lrK ,oaols’ fuys Ndú;d lr we;s PdhdrEm iy Ñ;% úúO uQ,dY% j,ska ,nd .;a tajd jk w;r tajd Wmqgd .ekSu i|yd uq,a ysñlrejkaf.ka kS;Hdkql+, wjirh ,ndf.k fkdue;s nj o i,lkak’ tneúka fuu jevigyka msgm;a lr úlSkSu fkdl< hq;= neõ lreKdfjka i,lkak’ fuys we;s wvqmdvq iy fuh ;jÿrg;a jeä ÈhqKq l< yels wdldrh my; ,smskhg okajkak’ ví,sõ’î’fla’fyÜáwdrÉÑ 1$1” ÿñ÷ úf.dv” fnïuq,a, 033-2289394 Slide5:  W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI Presented by:  Presented by W.B.K.HETTIARACHCHI 033-2289394 Slide7:  THE CELL Stucture & Functions ye|skaùSu:  ye|skaùSu ishˆ Ôúka tla ffi,hlska fyda ffi, rdYshlska fyda ks¾udkh ú we;’ ffi,h hkq Ôùkaf.a jHqyuh iy lD;Huh tallhhs’ Slide9:  17 jk ishji jk ;=re Ôù foay iE§ we;af;a flfia±hs lsisfjl=;a oek fkdisáhy’ wkaùlaIh ksmoùu yd tys Èhqkqj;aa iu.u Ôù foayfha jHqyh ms<sn| ±kquo j¾Okh úh’ m<uq jrg ffi, ksßlaIKh lrKq ,enQfha ´,kao cd;sl Anton Von Leeuwekhoeck (1632-1723) úisks’ Tyq ;ks ldphla iys; b;d l=vd ir, wkaùlaIhlska fmdl=Kq c,h” úkdlsß” fÄgh” u,øjH” reêrh yd Y=l%h wdÈ øjH mßlaId lr jd¾;d lf,ah Slide10:  Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek An original Leeuwenhoek microscope Slide13:  ffi,h hk moh uq,skau bÈßm;a lrK ,oafoa bx.%Sis cd;sl Robert Hooke(1665) úisks’ Tyq lsr,wenhl ;=kS fm;a;la lmd ldp folla fhdod ksmojQ ixhqla; wkaùlaIhlska mÍlaId lf<ah’ Tyq ÿgqfõ ójohl isÿre fuka ÈiajQ ysia ldur jeks jHqyhls‘ Tyq tajd“ysia ueÈßh” hk f;areï we;s “CELL” hk mofhka ye¢kaùh’ ffi,h hk moh fuu bx.%Sis jpkh wkqj idod.;a tlls’ Slide14:  frdnÜyQla f.a wkaùlaIh Slide15:  frdnÜ yQla ÿgq lsr, wen ffi, frdnÜ yQla úiska w¢k ,o lsr, wen ffi, rEm igyka Slide16:  ffi,h ms<sn| b;sydih ieflúka fufia ±laúh yel’ 1’ Anton Von Leeuwekhoeck (1632-1723) úiska úúO Ôù fldgia ksÍlaIKh lr jd¾;d lsÍu 2’ Robert Hooke(1636-1700) úiska ffi,h hk moh bÈßm;a lsßu 3’ Robert Brown (1823) ffi,h ;=, f.da,dldr foayhla we;snj fmkajdÿka w;r th kHIaáh hkqfjka ye¢kaùh’ 4’ Dujardin (1835) úiska ffi,h c,a,suh øjHhlska msÍwe;s nj fmkajd ÿka w;r Purkinje(1839) úiska tuøjHh m%dla ma,diauh kñka ye¢kaùh’ 5’ Matthias Schleiden (1838) úiska Ydl fldgia .Kkdjla mÍlaId lr Ydl iE§ we;af;a uQ,sl jYfhka ffi, j,ska nj m%ldY lf,ah’ 6’ Theodor Schwann (1839) úiska i;aj fldgia .Kkdjla mÍlaId lr Ydl fukau i;a;=o iE§ we;af;a uQ,sl jYfhka ffi, j,ska nj m%ldY lf,ah’ 7’ 1885 § Rudolf Virchow úiska iEu ffi,hlau we;sjkafka l,ska mej;s ffi, j,ska nj m%ldY lsÍu ffi, jdoh:  ffi, jdoh by; i|yka ishˆ fidhd.ekSï mokï lrf.k ffi, jdoh f.dvk.d we;’ ffi, jdofhys my; woyia wvx.= fõ’ ishˆ Ôùyq tla ffi,hlska fyda ffi, rdYshlska ieÿï ,oaodyq fj;a’ ffi,h Ôùkaf.a uQ,sl jHqyuh tallh fõ’ ffi,h Ôùkaf.a lD;Huh tallh fõ ishˆu ffi, ìysjkafka Bg l,ska mej;s ffi, j,sks’ Slide18:  ffi,h ms<sn| wOHhkh iïmQ¾Kfhkau r|d mj;skafka wkaùlaIh u;hs’ Anton Von Leeuwekhoeck iy Robert Hooke úiska Ndú;d l, wkaùlaI folu b;d ir,jQ ksid bka ,nd.; yelsjQ úYd,kh b;d w,am úh’ tuksid jvd;a ÈhqKq wkaùSlaI ksmoùu isÿ úh’ ffi, jHqyh ms,sn|j jvd;a iúia;rj wOHhkh l< yels jQfha bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIh ksmoúfuka miqhs’ wkaùlaI ms<sn| fjku jevigykla we;’ th n,kak’ ffi, j, úYd,;ajh iy ffi, ixúOdkh:  ffi, j, úYd,;ajh iy ffi, ixúOdkh fï jk úg Tn úúO Ydl iy i;aj ffi, j¾. lsysmhla j;a wkaùlaIfhka ksÍlaIKh lr ;sfnkakg ms<sjk’ tajd yevyqrelu w;ska muKla fkdj úYd,;ajh w;ska o tlsfklg fjkia nj Tng jegfykakg we;’ ffi, ixúOdkh wkqj Ôjf,dalfha m%Odk ffi, ixúOdk folla y÷kdf.k we;’ m%d.a kHIaál ffi, ixúOdkh iqkHIaál ffi, ixúOdkh m%d.a kHIaál ffi, ixúOdkh :  m%d.a kHIaál ffi, ixúOdkh nelaàßhd m%d.a kHIaál ffi, jHqyh orhs’ Plasmid ma,diañvh Slide23:  m%d.a kHIaál ffi, ixúOdkhg ishˆu nelaàßhd j¾. iy ihfkdnelaàßhd wh;a fõ’ Slide24:  m%d.a kHIásl ffi, idfmalaIlj ir, ixúOdkhla olajhs’ úúO nelaàrshd j¾. we;;a tajd ish,a,u jHqyd;aulj tl iudk fõ’ fmdÿ ,laIK 1&’ 2-2.5µm muK l=vd ffi, ùu 2&’ ñhqfldfmmaghsv^.a,hsfldfmmaghsv& kïjq øjHhlska iEÿk oDv ffi, ì;a;shla ;sîu 3&’ mg,hlska jg ù ixúOdkh jQ kHIaáhla ke;’ 4&’ mg, j,ska jgjQ bkaøhsld ke;’ tkï uhsfgdfldkaä%hd” yß;,j” f.d,a.S jeks jHqy ke;’ 5&’ jd;a;dldr DNA wKqjla u.ska kHIaál øjH ksfhdackh fõ’ m%d.akHIaásl ffi, uq,skau we;sjQ ffi, fú m%d.a kHIaál ffi, orK Ôùka:  m%d.a kHIaál ffi, orK Ôùka fldl=i nelaàSrshd Nostoc kï ihfkdnelaàßhd iqkHIaál ffi, ixúOdkh:  iqkHIaál ffi, ixúOdkh m%d.akHIaál ffi, ixúOdkhg jvd ixlS¾K jHqyuh ixúOdkhla iqkHIaál ffi,j, we;’ idudkHfhka Ydl iy i;=ka f,i y÷kajk Ôùka iQkHIaál Ôúyq fj;a’ iqkHIaál ffi,j, m%Odk ,laIKh kï tajdfha kHIaál øjH mg,hlska jgù kHIaáhla f,i ixõOdkh ù ;sîuhs’ tfiau uhsfgdfldkav%shd” yß; ,j” f.d,a.S jeks mg,uh bka§%hsld orhs’ Slide27:  úúO i;a;aj iy Ydl ffi, lsysmhla lïuq,a ffi, iqÿ reêrdKq ffi, uDÿia;rYdl ffi, ffY,u iy maf,dahu ffi, ldáf,ac ffi, ia:usNsl wmspPo ffi, Slide28:  wdf,dal wkaùCIfhka fmfkk i;a;aj ffi,hl jHqyh o¾Ysh iqkHIaál ffi,j, we;s m%Odk ixrpl i;a;aj iy Ydl ffi,hlska w¾Oh ne.ska olajd we;’:  o¾Ysh iqkHIaál ffi,j, we;s m%Odk ixrpl i;a;aj iy Ydl ffi,hlska w¾Oh ne.ska olajd we;’ Slide30:  w.akHdYhsl ffi,hl iïfmA%IK bf,lafg%dak wkaùCISh PdhdrEmhla fidahdfndaxÑm;% uOH ffi,hl iïfmA%IK bf,lafg%dak wkaùCISh PdhdrEmhla Slide31:  mrsjyk wdYhsld f.d,a.S laIqo% iQ;%sld rˆ ER uhsfgdfldkav%shu ma,diau mg,h fl%dueàka kHIaáldj kHIaá mg,h kH Ia á h kssoyia rhsfndfidau ,hsfidfidauh isks÷ ER laIQø wx.=,sld laIQøkd,sld o¾Ysh iQkHIaál i;a;aj ffi,h Slide32:  iqkHIaál i;aaj ffi,hl ;%sudk o¾Ykh Slide33:  ma,diau nkaO kHIaámg,h kHIaáldj fl%dueàska kHIaáh hdno ffi, ì;a;s uOHiqia;rh isks÷ wka;(m,diaóh cd,sldj uhsfgdfldkavs%hu CIQo%kd,sld CIQo% iQ;%sld ffi, ns;a;sh f.d,a.S ,hsfidfidauh rsla;lh yß;,jh rhsfndfidau r¨ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj ma,diau mg,h o¾YSh Ydl ffi,h Slide34:  THE PLANT CELL Cell wall Cell membrane Slide35:  i;aj ffi, iy Ydl ffi, ishˆu iQkHIaál ffi, my; i|yka bkaøhsld$ jHqy orhs’ ma,diau mg,h” kHIaáh” uhsfgdfldkav%shd wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sld rhsfndfidau f.d,a.s foay ,hsfidfidau laIQø kd,sld iy laIQø iQ;%sld laIQø foay Slide36:  i;a;aj ffi,h yd bkao%hsld óShl=f.a wlaud ffi,hla ^bf,lafg%dak wkajSlaISh jHqyh& Slide37:  fuhg wu;rj ishˆu Ydl iy i;a;aj ffi, j, ma,diau mg,hg msg;ska ffi, wdjrKhla we;’ fuh ffi,hl ndysr iSudj fõ’bka ishˆu ffi, j, ma,diau mg,h hï wdldrhlska wdjrKh ù we;’ ta u.ska ffi, mg,h yd wNHka;r jHqyhka wdrlaIdfõ’ Ydl ffi, j, ndysr wdjrKh ffi, ì;a;sh (CELL WALL) kï fõ’th fi,shqf,daia” fmlaàka iy ,s.akSka wdÈfhka iEÿKq ±ä wÔù jHqyhls’^ffi, ì;a;sh ms<sn| úia;r miqj ±lafõ’& ishˆ i;a;aj ffi,” tajd u.ska i%djh lrKq ,nk nysiaffi,Sh wKq cd,hlska jgù we;’ fïjd fndfyda úg fmd,sielrhsv yd ne¢ we;s ;ka;=uh fm%daàk fõ’ fïjd nyq ffi,sl Ôùhl=f.a ffi, w;r mQrlh idohs’ ffi, wdjrKh ma,diaudmg,h (CellMembrane) :  ma,diaudmg,h (CellMembrane) iEu ffi,hlau ma,diau mg,hlska jgù we;’ fuh ffi,fha l%shldß wdjrKhhs’ wdf,dal wkaùlaIfhka fkdfmfkk ;rï fuh ishqïh’ m%Odk jYfhka fm%daák iy ,smsv j,ska iEÈ we;s fuys >klu 0’1μm muK nj bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIfhka ksÍlaIKlsÍfï§ fmks hhs’ ma,diaud mg,h bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIfhka fmfkk mßÈ Slide39:  maa,diau mg,fha jHqyh úia;r lsÍug oekg Ndú;d lrKq ,nk wdlD;sh bÈßm;a lrK ,oafoa 1972 oS S.J.Singer iy G.L.Nicholson hk fofokd úisks’ th ;r, úÑ;% wdlD;sh Fluid Mosaic Model hkqfjka ye¢kafõ’ ma,diau mg,fha ;r, úÑ;% wdlD;sh:  ma,diau mg,fha ;r, úÑ;% wdlD;sh fmdiafmd,smsv oaaú wKql ia;rh ld¾fndayhsfâ%g msg; mg,h u; jQ fm%daàk w¾O f,i .s¿kq fm%daàk iïmQ¾K mg,h yryd msysgk fm%daàk we;=,; ia:rh u; jQ fm%daàk .a,hsfld,smsv .a,hsfldfm%daák maa,diau mg,fha ;%sudk wdlD;shla:  maa,diau mg,fha ;%sudk wdlD;shla Pso% idok fm%daàSk ,smsv wKq j, c, ldó ysia ,smsv wKqj, c, NS;sl j,s. ld¾fndayhsfâ%g .a,hsfld,smsv .a,hsfldfm%daàk fmdiafmd,smsv oaú wKqlia;rh ýo%h Basic Histology-L.C.Junqueira &J.Carneiro fmdf;ka Wmqgd ixialrKhlrK ,§’ Slide42:  ’ ma,diau mg,fha jHqyh 0’1μm muK >Klñska hq;a ,smsv oaú;aj ia;rhlska iy fm%daàk j,ska iEoSwe;’ óg wu;rj ld¾fndayhsfâ%g o iqˆ m%udKhla we;’ ,smsv m%Odk jYfhka fmdiafmd,smsv fõ ;r, úÑ;% wdlD;shgwkqj ma,diau mg,h ;=< ,ssmsvwKqQ wLKav ia;r folla f,i ieliS we;’ oaú wKql ,smsv ia:rh fm%daàk ma,diau mg,fhys ,smsv wKq j, msysàu:  ma,diau mg,fhys ,smsv wKq j, msysàu ,smsv wKqq msysgd we;af;a tajdfha c,NS;sl j,s.^fïo wï, ldKav& we;=,;g;a c,ldó ysia ^.a,sifrda,a iy fmdiafmaÜ ldKav& msg;g;a fhduq jk mßÈh’ ,smsv wKq j,g ;rula ÿrg md¾Yúlj p,kh úh yels ksid ma,diau mg,hg ;r,uh iajNdjhla ,eì we;’ c, NS;sl j,s. c, ldó ysia ma,diau mg,fha fm%daàk msysàu:  ma,diau mg,fha fm%daàk msysàu ma,diau mg,fhys fm%daàk wKq fmdiafmd,smsv wKq u; fyda fmdiafmd,smsv wKq w;r .s,S fyda ;ekska ;ek úisß mj;S’ tkï" úÑ;%" wdldrhlg msysghs’fuu msysàu wdldr i;rls’ ’ 1’ ,smsv ia:rfha w¾O f,i .s,S 2’ ,smsv ia;rfoflys iïmQ¾Kfhka .s,S 3 ,smsv ia:rfha msg; mDIagh u; 4 ,smsv ia:rfha we;=,; mDIagh u; ,smsv wKq ia;r foflysu iïmQ¾Kfhka .s,S we;s we;eï fmd%aàk wKq j, c,ldó isÿre^Pso%& mj;S’ 1 2 3 4 Slide45:  ma,diau mg,fhys msg; mDIagh u; muKla fm%daàk iy ,smsv wKq j,g iïnkaOjQ ld¾fndayhsfâ%g ^fmd,sielrhsv& msysghs’ ld¾fndayhsfâ%g iïnkaOjQ fm%daàk .a,hsfldfm%daàk kñka ye¢kafõ’ ld¾fndayhsfâ%g iïnkaOjQ ,smsv .a,hsfld,smsv kñka ye¢kafõ’ fmd,sielrhsv .a,hsfldfm%daàk .a,hsfld,smsv ma,diau mg,fhys ;r, úÑ;% wdlD;sh:  ma,diau mg,h ±ä jHqyhla fkdj ;r,uh iajNdjhla .kakd jHqyhls’ ,smsv wKq j,g ;rula ÿrg md¾Yúlj p,kh úhyel’ tkï tla fudfyd;l mg,fha tla ia:dkhl we;s ,smsv wKqjla iaj,am fõ,djlska mg,fha fjk;a ia:dkhl msysgkakg ms<sjk’ we;eï fm%daàk wKq j,go fmdiafmd,smsv wKq fuka ;rula ÿrg p,kh ùug yelsh’ ma,diau mg,fha fuu ;r,uh iajNdjh;a” fm%daàk wKq mg,fha ;ekska ;ek msysàu fyj;a úÑ;% msysàu ksid;a ma,diau mg,fha jHqyh ms<sn| Singer-Nicholson bÈßm;a l< wdlD;sh ;r,-úÑ;% wdlD;sh kñka ye¢kafõ ma,diau mg,fhys ;r, úÑ;% wdlD;sh ma,diau mg,h:  ma,diau mg,h ma,diau mg,fhys fuu jHqyh tall mg, jHqyh kñska o ye|skafõ’ m%d.akHIaál ffi, j, ma,diau mg,ho fuu jHqyh orhs’ tfiau iQkHIaál ffi,;=< we;s uhsfgdfldkaä%hu”f.d,a.S” ER wd§ wfkl=;a ishˆu mg,uh bkaøhsld jglrk mg, iE§ we;af;ao fuu tall mg, jHqyfhks’ ma,diau mg,fha lD;H:  ma,diau mg,fha lD;H w& iSudldÍ mg,hla f,i l%shd lsÍu fuh ndysßkau msysgk neúkaffi,ma,diauh ndysr mßirfhka iy fjk;a ffi, j,ska fjkalrk iSudldÍ mg,hla f,i l%shd lrhs’ffi, ma,diauh ;=, wvx.= øjH wdrlaId lrhs’ Slide49:  wd& øjH mßjykh hdukh lsßu ffi,hg wjYH øjH muKla mg,h yryd ffi,h ;=<g we;=ˆ flf¾’fï ksid ma,diau mg,h jrKSh f,i mdr.uH;djhla olajkafka hehs lshkq ,efí’ mg,h yryd o%jH we;=ˆ lsÍu wl%shj fyda il%shj fyda isÿflf¾’ ^fï ms<sn| úia;r l%shdldÍ Ydlh tallfha§ b.ekafõ’& ma,diau mg,h yryd o%jH mrsjykh:  ma,diau mg,h yryd o%jH mrsjykh ;eô,s meyefhka ±lafjkqfha il%sh mßjykh isÿ lrk fm%daàk wKqh’ th ks,a meye ^Na + jeks&wKq we;=,g;a ly meye^K+jeks& wKq msg;g;a hjhs’ r;= wKq ^CO2 , O2 & ,smsv oaúwKql ia;rh yryd wl%shj mßjykh flf¾’ ,d fld, meye wKqj kd, fm%daàkhls’ th yryd oï meye wKq ^ c,h yd iSks jeks& wKq wl%Shj mßjykh flf¾’ CLICK Slide51:  wjYH kï Previous f.dia kej; n,kak’ke;skï rEmh u; click lrkak Slide52:  we& ffi,h ;=< wdi%e;sl iu;=,s;;dj mj;ajd .eksu ffi,h ;=< isÿjk Ôj l%shd ksis f,i mj;ajd .ekSug ffi, ma,diaufha whk idkaøKh iy c,h m%udKh kshñ; idkaøK w.hl mj;ajd .ekSu m,diau mg,fhka isÿflfrk il%sh iy wl%sh mßjykh u.ska bgqfõ’ Slide53:  B& wmøjH neyer lsÍu mßjD;a;sh l%shd ksid ffi,h ;=< tla /iajk wmøjH úúO l%u u.ska neyer lsÍu o ma,diau mg,h yryd isÿ flf¾’ Slide54:  B& ffi, w;r iïnkaëlrKh i|yd f;dr;=re ,nd .ekSu iy ix{d ksl=;a lsÍu ma,diau mg,fha msg; mDIagfha we;s .a,hsfldfm%daàk iy .a,hsfld,smsv ffi, y÷kd.ekSfï ia:dk f,i l%shdlrhs’ kso(-reêr mdrú,hkfha§ msg;ska fokq ,nk reêrh o .e,fmao ke;ao hkak ;SrKh jkafla tu reêrfha r;=reêrdKq j, ma,diau mg,fha we;s úfYaIs; .a,hsfldfm%daákhla u.sks kHIaáh ^Nucleus&:  kHIaáh ^Nucleus& kHIaáh iïfm%AIK bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIfhka^TEM& fmfkk wdldrh ^yria lv& kHIaámg,h isÿre kHIaáldj fl%dueàka Slide56:  mrsf,dalk bf,lafg%dak wkaùSlaIfhka (SEM) fmfkk mrsos kHIaáshl mDIaÀh o¾Ykh msg; kHIaá mg,fhka fldgila bj;a lr we;s wdldrh n,kak kHIaáh isÿre msg; mg,h we;=,; mg,h kHIaáh:  kHIaáh kHIaáldj msg; kHIaámg,h we;=,; kHIaá mg,h isÿr fl%dueàka kHIaá ma,diauh kHIaá mg,hg iïnkaO rˆ ER kHIaá mg,h yd ne÷kq rhsfndfidau bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaISh PdhdrEmhla weiqßka w¢k,o kHIaáfha yrialv rEm igyk Slide58:  iqkHIaál ffi,fha we;s jeo.;a yd úYd,u bkaøShsldjhs’ bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIfhka mÍlaId l<úg ma,diaumg,fha jHqyhg iudk jQ mg, follska jgjQ f.da,ldr bkaøShsldjla f,i Èiafõ’ mg, fol w;r we;s wjldYh mßkHIaál wjldYh kñ’ kHIaá mg,fha ;ekska ;ek isÿre ;sfí’ fï isÿre yryd kHIaáh yd ffi, ma,diauh w;r øjH yqjudre fõ’ kHIaásh Slide59:  kHIaáh ;=, kHIaáma,diauh ^kHiaá hqIh&” fl%dueàka iy f.da,dldr foayhla jk kHIaáldj hk jHqy we;’ kHIaá hqIfha úúO whk” fm%daàk” RNA , tkaihsu iy kshqla,sfhdaghsv wdÈh wvx.= fõ’ Slide60:  msg; kHIaá mg,h we;eï ia:dk j,§ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj iu. iïnkaO ù we;’ kHIaáh ;=< we;s fl%dueàka iE§ we;af;a DNA iy ysiafgdaka kï fm%daàk tlaùfuks’ fl%dueàka cd,hla f,i mj;sk w;r kHIaá úNdckh jk úg fl%dueàka cd,h ke;sùf.dia j¾K foay f,i Èiafõ’ kHIaáldj f.da,dldr foayhla jk w;r DNA, RNA iy fmd%àka j,ska iE§ we;’ kHIaáfha lD;H :  kHIaáfha lD;H ffi,fha fud<h f,i fndfydaúg ye¢kafõ’ 1’ ffi,fha l%shdldß;ajh md,kh lrK m%fõKsl øjH ixÑ; lsÍu 2’ RNA ixYf,aIKh u.ska tkaihsu iy jHqyuh fm%daàk i|yd m%fõKsl f;dr;=re ,ndoSu 3’ ffi, j¾Okh iy ffi, úNdckfha iS.%;dj md,kh lsÍu 4’ m%fõKsfha§ wdfõKsh rgd md,kh yd m%fõKs.; ,laIK iïfm%aIKh 5’ kHIaáldj u.ska rhsfndfidau idohs’ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM:  wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM ffi, ma,diauh mqrd cd,hla fuka õisÍ mj;akd talmg,uh wdYhsld^l=àr& iy kd,sld moaO;shla wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj kñka ye¢ka fõ’ fuh wdldr follg mj;S’ tkï A rˆ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj B isks÷ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj rˆ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj^RER& tlsfklg iïnkaOjQ me;,s wdYhsld cd,hls fuys mg,fha msg; rhsfndfidau mssysghs’ isks÷ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj (SER) tlsfklg iïnkaOjQ me;,s kd,sld cd,hls’ fuys msg; mDIaGfha rhsfndfidau ke;’ Slide63:  wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj rˆ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj iïfm%aIK bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIsh PdhdrEmh isks÷ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj iïfm%aIK bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIsh PdhdrEmh Slide64:  wka;(ma,diañh cd,sldfõ ;%sudk jHqyh isks÷ ER rˆ ER rhsfndfidau wdYhsld kd,sld Slide65:  wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldfõ lD;H 1’ fm%daàk ixYaf,aIKh i|yd mDIaGh iemhSu rˆ ER u; msysá rhsfndfidau ;=< úúO fm%daàk ixYaf,aIKh fõ’ fïjd wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sld ;=,g we;=ˆ fõ’tkaihsu yd fm%daàkuh ixfhda. i%djh lrK ffi, j, rˆ ER jvd;a fyd¢ka úlikh ù we;’ kso(- w.akHdYhsl ffi, 2’ ,smsv ixYaf,aIKh lsÍu isks÷ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj ;=< fïo” iafgfrdhsv”yd fmdiafmd,smsv jeks ,smsv j¾. ixYaf,aIKh flf¾’ 3’ ixYaf,aIs; øjH mßjykhlsÍu rˆ ER u; msysá rhsfndfidau ;=< ixYaf,aIKh jk øjH wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sld ;=,g we;=ˆ fõ’ fïjd ER Tiafia ffi,fha fjk;a ia:dk lrd mßjykh flf¾’ Slide66:  wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldfõ lD;H 4’ f.d,a.s ksmoùu ffi,fha úfYaIs; lD;H .Kkdjla isÿ lrk f.d,a.S foay yg .kafka isks÷ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldfjka we;s lrK wdYhsld u.sks’ 5’ úI øjH úI yrKh lsÍu isks÷ ER ffi,hg we;=ˆ jk úI øjH úfYaIs; tkaihsu u.ska ùI rys; o%jH njg yrjhs’ ñksia isref¾ úI øjH úI yrKh lrK m%Odk bkaøSh jk wlaudfõ isks÷ ER fyd¢ka úlikh ù we;’ 6’ ffi,hg ikaOdrK lD;Hhla iemhSu wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldj ffi,h mqrd úys§ we;s mg,uh moaO;shla neúka úúO bkaøhsld ffi, ma,diauh ;=, r|jd ;eìu;a hïlsis ikaOdrK lD;Hhla bgqlsÍu;a isÿfõ’ uhsfgdfldkaä%hd:  uhsfgdfldkaä%hd uhsfgdfldkaä%hul jHqyh:  uhsfgdfldkaä%hul jHqyh uhsfgdfldkaä%hd 1-3μm muK È.e;s oKavdldr fyda fidfiacia yeve;s jHqy fõ’ ma,diau mg,hg iudk mg, follska jgù we;’ we;=,; mg,h ;=< we;s wjldYh mQrlh kï fõ’ we;=,; mg,h mQrlh ;=<g ñhr kï jQ fkÍï rdYshla we;s lrhs’ ñhr ksid mDIaÀh fCIa;%M,h jeä flf¾’ mQrlh ;=< pl%Sh DNA” rhsfndfidau” iy ffi,Sh Yajikhg wjYH úúO tkaihsu we;’ ñshr u;jDka;hla iys; f.da,dldr foay rdYshla msysghs’ msg; iy we;=,; mg, fol w;r we;s wjldYfha ^wka;¾ mg, wjldYh& tkaihsu we;’ cSjfha ridhksl moku- wfidald m;sr;ak uhssfgdfldkaä%hd (Mitochondria):  uhssfgdfldkaä%hd (Mitochondria) uhsfgdfldkaä%%hu j, we;s jD;a;dldr DNA iy 70 S j¾.fha rhsfndfidau m%d.a kHIaálhka f.a DNA iy rhsfndfidau j,g iudkh’ tksid uhsfgdfldkaä%hu j, iïNjh iajdhQ nelaàßhdjla u.ska isÿùh hs we;eïyq úYajdi lr;a’ iïfm%aIK bf,lafg%dak wkaùCISh Pdhdremh uhsfgdfldkaä%s%hd - úúO yev :  uhsfgdfldkaä%s%hd - úúO yev uhsfgdfldkaä%hu:  uhsfgdfldkaä%hu ñhr j, msysàu uhsfgdfldkaä%hu j, lD;H:  uhsfgdfldkaä%hu j, lD;H uhsfgdfldkaä%hu ffi,h ;=, msysgk b;d jeo.;a bkaøhsldjls’ ffi,Sh Yajikfha iajdhq m%;sl%shd isÿjkafka uhsfgdfldkaä%hu ;=,h’ Yajikfha§ ffi,fha Ôj l%shd isÿlsßug wjYH Yla;s m%Njh jk ATP ksmojkqfha uhsfgdfldkaä%hu ;=,§h’ ffi,Sh Yajikfha fl%íia isÜßla wï, pl%h uhsfgdfldkaä%hfï mQrlh ;=,;a bf,lafg%dak mßjyk odufha m%;sl%shd wNHka;r mg,fha ñhr u;;a isÿfõ’ ñhr ksid mDIaÀh fCIa;%M,h jeä ú we;s ksidtljr wêl ATP m%udKhla ksmoúh yelsh’ mßjD;a;sh l%shdj,s iS.%fhka isÿjk lxld, fmaYS ffi,” iakdhq ffi,” wlaud ffi, wdÈfha uhsfgdfldkaä%hd nyq,j msysgd we;’ f.d,a.S ixlS¾Kh:  f.d,a.S ixlS¾Kh f.d,a.S foayh (Golgi Apparatus):  f.d,a.S foayh (Golgi Apparatus) fuho iQkHIaál ffi,j, yuqjk mg,uh bkaøhsldjls’ tl u; tl msysá me;,sjQ mSßis yeve;s mg,uh uä (Cisternae) .Kkdjla iy tajdfha m¾hka;h wdY%s; wdYhsld rdYshlska f.d,a.s foayh ^f.d,a.S WmlrKh& iE§ we;’ idudkHfhka i;aaj ffi,hl yuqjkafka tla f.d,a.s foayhla muKs’ kuq;a we;eï Ydl ffi, j, f.d,a.s foay lsysmhla mej;sh yel’ túg tajd ish,a, tlaj f.k f.d,a.S ixlS¾Kh kñka y÷kajhs’ f.d,a.s j, lD;H:  f.d,a.s j, lD;H ^1&’ ffi,h ;=< ksIamdokh jk wKq /ialsÍu” ilia lsÍu” weysÍu fnod yeÍu hk lD;H bgq lrhs’ wka;(ma,diañh cd,sld j, ksmofjk fm%daàk iy ,smsv wka;(ma,diañh cd,sld j, we;s k,ud¾. ;=,ska fyda wka;(ma,diañh cd,sld j,ska ksmofjk wdYhsld u.ska f.d,a.S foay fj;g mßjykh fõ’ f.d,a.S foay j, we;s mg,uh uä (cisternae) ;=,§ fm%daàk iy ,smsv fmd,sielrhsv iu. tlaù .a,hsfld fm%daàk iy .a,hsfld,smsv iEfoa’ fuu ixfhda. wvx.= wdYhsld f.d,a.S u~,a j,ska wxl=r f,i fjkaù ffi,fha fjk;a ia:dk j,g .uka lrhs’ ^2& wka;(ffi,sh ÔrK tkaihsu wvx.= jHqyjk ,hsfidfidau iEfokafkao f.d,a.s j,sks’ f.d,a.S foayfha l%Shdldßlajhh:  f.d,a.S foayfha l%Shdldßlajhh f.d,a.S ixlS¾Khla:  f.d,a.S ixlS¾Khla úúO ffi, j, f.d,a.S foay:  úúO ffi, j, f.d,a.S foay ffi, ma,diaufha we;s wdYhsld:  ffi, ma,diaufha we;s wdYhsld taall mg,fhka jgjQ hï ;r,hla wvx.= jHqy wdYhsld f,i ye|skafõ’ ishˆu iQkHIaál ffi, ;==< we;s iaÓr wdYhsld j¾. folla fõ’ 1’,hsfidfidau Lysosomes 2’ laIQø foay Microbodies ,hsfidfidau:  ,hsfidfidau wka;(ffi,Sh Ôrl tkaihsï^c, úfpþol tkaihsu& wvx.= tal mg,uh f.da,dldr wdYhsld j¾.hls’ ,hsfidfidau iEfokqfha f.d,a.s j,ska yg.kakd wdYhsld f,igh’ ,hsfidfidau ;=, wvx.= tkaihsu fm%daáfhai” ld¾fndayhsfâ%i” ,hsfmai” kshqla,sfhai” weisâfmdiamfÜi ,hsfidfidau ;=, tkaihsu mj;sk udOHh wdï,slh ,hsfidfidau iEoSu iy l%shdldrs;ajh:  ,hsfidfidau iEoSu iy l%shdldrs;ajh Slide83:  ,hsfidfidaufha lD;Hh ms<sn| ir, ksrEmKhla cSjfha ridhksl moku -wfidald m;sr;ak ,hsfidfidau j, lD;H:  ,hsfidfidau j, lD;H 1’ wka;(ffi,Sh ÔrKh ffi,h ;=,g msg;ska wê.%ykh l< wxY= ÔrKh lsÍu ,hsfidfidau j, tla lD;Hhls’ m%:ufhka ffi,h ;=,g .kq ,nk wxY= iys; wdYhsldj iu. ,hsfidfidauhla nef|a’ fuúg iEfok oaù;shsl ,hsfidfidauh fyj;a NlaIfidauh ;=<§ ,hsfidfidaufha tkaihsu u.ska wd.ka;=l wxY=j ÔrKh flf¾’ kso(- 1’ weónd jeks tal ffi,sl i;=ka wê.%ykh l< wdydr ÔrKh lsÍu 2’ ñksidf.a reêrhg we;=ˆ jk CIqø Ôùka iqÿ reêrdKqu.ska úkdY lsÍu ’ Slide85:  2’ iajhx NCIKh ffi,h ;=, we;s jhia.; jQ fyda ydkshg m;ajQ bkaøhsld úkdY lsÍu ,hsfidfidau u.sska isÿfõ’ wod, bkaøhsldj mg,hlska wdjrKh l< miq ,hsfidfidauhla th iu. iïnkaO fõ’ tys we;s tkaihsu u.ska bkao%hsldj ÔrKh flf¾’ wjYH wka;M, ffi, ma,diauhg wjfYdaIKh flf¾’ fYaIjQ øjH ffi, my lsÍu u.ska ffi,fhka neyer flf¾’ Slide86:  3’iajhx ÔrKh ffi,h ;=<§ ,hsfidfidauh mqmqrd .shfyd;a tys we;s tkaihsu u.ska iïmQ¾K ffi,hu ÔrKh ù úkdY fõ’ fï ksid fïjd ffi, Èú kdYl uˆ kñka o ye¢ka fõ’ kuq;a we;eï úg fuu l%shdj Ôúhdg jeo.;a jk wjia:do we;’ 1’;=jd,jQ fyda frda.S jQ fyda ffi, úkdY lr tajd wˆ;a ffi, j,ska m%;sia:dmkh lsÍu i|yd fuu ls%hdj jeo.;a fõ’ 11’f.ïndf.a rEmdka;%Kfha§ biaf.ähdf.a j,s.h flá ùugo ,hsfidfidau ls%hdj jeo.;a fõ’ ,hsfidfidau j, lD;H Slide87:  4’nysiaffi,Sh ÔrKh idudkHfhka ,hsfidfidau ffi, j,ska msg;g tkaihsu neyer lrkafka ke;’ kuq;a wiaÓ mglfha we;s Tiaáfhdala,diag kï ffi, j¾.h ,hsfidfidau tkaihsu msg;g i%djh lrhs’ wiaÓhla levqkq úgÈ ;=jd, jQ mgl fldgia bj;a lsßug th jeo.;a fõ’ CIQø foay:  CIQø foay wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldfjka we;sjk tkaihsu wka;¾.;” tal mg,hlska jgjQ jHqy j¾.hls’ CIQø foay j¾. folls’ fmfrdlaisfidau .a,fhdlaisfidau fmfrdlaisfidau:  fmfrdlaisfidau fmfrdlaisfidau j, legf,aia kï tkaihsu we;’ iajdhq Yajikfha w;=re M,hla f,i yhsv%cka fmfrdlaihsâ iEfoa’ yhsv%cka fmfrdlaihsâ ffi, j,g úI øjHhls’ tksid fmfrdlaisfidau j, we;s legf,aia tkaihsu u.ska yhsv%cka fmfrdlaihsâ c,h iy Tlaiscka j,g ì|fy,hs’ jl=.vqfõ iy wlaudfõ we;s fmfrdlaisfidau u.ska flfkla mdkh l< uOHidrh ì| oud tajdfha úI .;sh kid oukq ,efí’ fmfrdlaisfidau Ydl iy i;aj ffi, foj¾.fhau we;’ .a,fhdlaisfidau:  .a,fhdlaisfidau .a,fhdlaisfidau we;eï Ydl ffi, j, we;’ tajd ,smsv ld¾fndayhsfâ%S%g njg m;a lrhs’ kso(-îc m%frdayKfha§ ixÑ; ,smsv ld¾fndayhsfâ%%g njg yrjd Yajikhg yd fjk;a ixfhda. ixYaf,aIKh lsÍug .a,fhdlaisfidau j, we;s tkaihsu Ndú;d fõ’ ffi,Sh iels,a, :  ffi,Sh iels,a, bf,lafg%dak wkaùCIfhka fmfkk mßÈ ffi, ma,diauh ;=< wNHka;r cd,dldr moaO;shla we;’ CIQøkd,sld“ CIQø iQ;%sld iy wka;¾uOH iQ;s%sld hk tajdhska iEÿkq ;%sudk ±,sils’ ffi, iels,af,a lD;H:  ffi, iels,af,a lD;H ffi, iels,a, u.ska my; lD;H bgq flf¾’ 1’ uhsfgdfldkaã%hu” f.d,a.s”rhsfndfidau jeks bkaøhsld tlsfklska iqÿiq ÿr m%udK j,ska wE;aj iy wj,ïì;j r|jdf.k we;’ 2’ ffi,fha yevh mj;ajd .eksu 3’ ffi, ma,diaóh p,kh^jlairKh& isÿlsÍu 4’ ffi,h ;=, bkaøhsld p,kh 5’ jHdc mdo idoñka isÿlrk p,kh CIQøkd,sld iy CIQø iQ;%sld:  CIQøkd,sld iy CIQø iQ;%sld CIQø kd,sld (Microtubules) fïjd ffi, ma,diau mQrlfha úisÍ we;s l=yr iys; isyska is,skavrdldr jHQy fõ’ fïjd iE§ we;af;a áhqìhq,Ska (Tubulin) kï fm%daàkfhks’ CIQø kd,sld j, úIalïNh 25nm la muK fõ’ CIQøkd,sld j, lD;H 1’ffi, iels,a, iE§ug iyNd.sùu 2’wka;( ffi,Sh øjH mßjykh 3’lYsld iy mlaIu iE§u 4’kHIaá úNdckfha§ ;¾l=j iE§u CIQø iQ;%sld:  CIQø iQ;%sld CIQø iQ;%Sld Microfilament ffi, ma,diaóh mQrlfha wyUq f,i yd cd,hla f,i mj;sk isyska >k iQ;%sld úfYaIhls’CIQø iQ;%sld iE§ we;af;a welaàka kï fm%daàkfhks’ CIQø iQ;%sld j, lD;H 1’ffi, iels,a, iE§ug odhl ùu 2’ffi,h ;=, ffi, ma,diauh .,d hEu 3’ weónd jeks i;=kaf.a jHdcmdo iE§u u.ska ffi, NlaIKh iy p,kh isÿlsßug rhsfndfidau :  rhsfndfidau ishˆu Ôùka ;=< mj;sk mg,hlska jg fkdjQ bkaøhsldjls’ fm%daàk iy RNA j,ska iE§ we;’ rhsfndfidauhla iE§ we;af;a Wm tall follsks’fuu tall fol wiudkh’ rhsfndfidau ffi,h ;=< wdldr lsysmhlg msysghs’ 1ffi, ma,diau mQrlh ;=< ksoyfia úisÍ 2’rˆ wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sldfõ mDIaGh u;=msg 3’ffi, ma,diaufha i¾ms, fyda úÑ;% wdldrhg msysá f.dkq f,i ^fuúg tajd fmd,sfidau f,i ye¢ka fõ’& flakaøSld^ flakaø foayh&:  flakaøSld^ flakaø foayh& ishˆu i;aj ffi, j,;a we;eï tal ffi,sl Ydl ffi,j,;a msysgk mg,uh fkdjQ bkaøhsldjls’ kHIaáhg wdikakfha tlsfklg ,ïNlj msysá flá is,skavrdldr jHqy folla f,i Èiafõ’ tla tla is,skavrhla flakaøSldjla f,i ye¢ka fõ’ flakaøSldjla iE§ we;af;a wkajdhdu wlaIhg tlsfklg iudka;rj msysgk CIQøkd,sld ;%s;aj ñá 9 lsks’ flakaøSld hq., Èia úhyels wdldr flakaøSldfõ lD;Hh jkqfha ffi, úNdckfhaÈ ;¾l=j iEÈuhs’ mlaIu iy lYsld :  mlaIu iy lYsld we;eï i;aj iy Ydl ffi, j, ffi, mDIaGfhka msg;g úysfok m%ir j¾. folls’ mlaIu iy lYsld jHqyfhka iudkh’ fïjd iEÈ we;s jHqyh laIqø kd,sld 9+2 jHqyh kñka ye¢ka fõ’ uOHfha CIqø kd,sld hq.,lao ta jgd Bg iudka;r f,i msysá CIQø kd,sld hq., 9 la msysgk w;r iïmQ¾K jHqyh È.gu ma,diau mg,fhka jg ù we;’ mCIuhla fyda lYsldjla ffi, ma,diaufhka wdrïN jk ia:dkh mdoia: lKsldj kñka ye¢kafõ‘ tys CIQøkd,sld msysàu flakaÈldjl CIQø kd,sld msysàug iudkh mCIu iy lYsld w;r fjki tajdfha È. iy ffi,hl msysgk ixLHdjhs’:  mCIu iy lYsld w;r fjki tajdfha È. iy ffi,hl msysgk ixLHdjhs’ mCIu (Cilia) mCIu flá m%ir jk w;r tl ffi,hl úYd, ixLHdjla msysghs’ tal ffi,sl i;=kaf.a ffi,fha ndysr mDIAGh u; mCIu rdYshla msysghs’ “ fudjqkaf.a mCIu ixprKh i|yd fhofõ’ kso(- Paramecium nyq ffi,sl i;=kaf.a wNHka;r mDIAG wdia;rKh lrk wmsÉPo mgl j, o mCIu msysghs’ tajd wmsÉPo mgl mDIAGh u; we;s wxY+ p,khg Ndú;dfõ’ kso(- ñksidf.a Yajdi kd, wmsÉPoh Paramecium Didinium Slide99:  lYsld È.= m%ir jk w;r tl ffi,hl msysgkafka tlla fyda lsysmhls’ lYsld ixprkhg Ndjs;dfõ’ msysgkafka tal ffi,sl Ôùkaf.a iy tal ffi,sh jHqy j, muKs’ kso- Euglena iy Chlamydomonas hk tal ffi,sl i;=ka f.a Y=l%dKq iy my;a Ydl j, mqx ckaudKq ^Y=l%dKq& lYsld Slide100:  fuu ùäfhda o¾Ykfhka fmkakqï lrkafka Euglena kï tal ffi,sl Ôúhd lYsldj u.ska p,kh lrk wdldrhhs’ tksid fudjqka lYsldOrfhda kñka ye¢kafõ’ l%shd lsÍug rEmh u; CLICK lrkak’ bj;a ùug msg; CLICK lrkak’ Ydl ffi,h :  Ydl ffi,h Ydl ffi,hlo by; úia;r l< ma,diau mg,h” kHIaáh” uhsfgdfldkaä%hd” wka;(ma,diaóh cd,sld” rhsfndfidau” f.d,a.s foay” ,hsfidfidau” laIQø kd,sld” laIQø iQ;%sld iy laIQø foay hk bkaøhsld ish,a,u we;’ Bg wu;rj ffi, ì;a;sh” yß; ,j“ j¾K,j” Yafõ; ,j iy uOH ßla;lh hk jHqy Ydl ffi,hl msysghs ffi, ì;a;sh - CELL WALL:  ffi, ì;a;sh - CELL WALL Ydl ffi, j, muKla ±lsh yels jHqyhls ’Ydl ffi,hl msg;skau msysá wdjrKh fuhhs’ È,Sr yer wfkla iQkHIaál Ydl ffi, ì;a;sh iE§ we;s m%Odk øjHh jkafka fi,shqf,daia kï fmd,sielrhsvhhss’ È,sr ffi, ì;a;sh iE§ we;af;a lhsàka kï fmd,sielrhsvfhks’ ffi, ì;a;sfha fi,shqf,daia j,g wu;rj fmlaàka” ,s.akSka” fyñfi,shqf,daia yd iqfnÍka hk ixfhda. j,ska tlla fyda lsysmhla fyda ;sìh yel’ ffi, ì;a;sh ksmojkqfha m%dlama,diauh u.sks’ ffi,ì;a;sh iïmQ¾Kfhkau wÔú jHqyhls’ffi,hla ñh .sh miqjo ffi, ì;a;s úkdY fkdù b;sßss fõ’ Robert Hooke ússiska ksÍlaIKh lrk ,oafoa ffi, ì;a;s muKla wvx.= uereKq j,al ffi,hs’ m%d:ñl ffi, ì;a;sh:  m%d:ñl ffi, ì;a;sh hdno ffi, foll ì;a;s tlg ne£ we;af;a uOH iqia;rh kï noduhla u.sks‘ uOH iqia;rh iE§ we;af;a fmlaàka ixfhda. j,sks’ b;d ,má wjêhl mj;sk Ydl ffi,hl ffi, ì;a;sh m%d:ñl ffi, ì;a;sh kñka ye¢kafõ’ ’ mßK; jk úg we;eï Ydl ffi, j, m%d:ñl ì;a;shg we;=,ska oaú;shsl ffi, ì;a;shlao ;ekam;a fõ’ m%d:ñl ì;a;sfha m%Odk ix>glh fi,shqf,daia h’ Bg wu;rj fmlaàka o we;eï úg fyñfi,shqf,daia o ;sìh yel’ Slide104:  m%d:ñsl ì;a;sh wika;;slh’ tkï ffi, ì;a;sfha we;eï ia:dk j, ì;a;sh ;ekam;a fkdfõ’ tu ia:dk yryd hdno ffi, j, m%dlama,diau iïnkaO fõ’ tu ia:dk m%%d:ñl l+ fCIa;% kñka ye|ska fõ’ miq lf,l ma,diau nkaO kï ffi, ikaê njg m;ajkafka fuu ia:dkhka h’ Slide105:  we;eï Ydl ffi, mßK; wjêfha;a m%d:ñl ì;a;sh muKla u orhs’ kso)-uDÿia;r ffi, ;j;a ffi, mßK; jk úg m%d:ñl ì;a;shg we;=,ska ta u; oaù;shsl ì;a;sh;a o ;ekam;a fõ’ oaù;shsl ì;a;sfha m%Odk ix>glho fi,shqf,daiah’Bg wu;rj fmlaàka fukau ,s.akSka fyda iqfnÍka keue;s ixfhda. we;’ fïjd u.ska oaù;shsl ì;a;shg ±ä njla ,ndfohs’ kso(-,s.akSka -oDvia;r ffi,“ ffY,óh jdyskS” jdyldN iqfnrSka’- j,al ffi, m%d:ñsl ì;a;sh yd oaùS;shsl ì;a;sh:  m%d:ñsl ì;a;sh yd oaùS;shsl ì;a;sh m%d:ñl ì;a;sh iE§fï§ fi,shqf,daia fl¢;s ;ekam;a jkafka wyUq wjq,a cd,hla f,isks’ fïksid m%d:ñl ì;a;sh ishqï ys±ia iys; neúka th fndfyda øjH j,g mdr.uH fõ’ fï msysàu ksid m%d:ñl ì;a;shg we§fï yelshdj ,efí’ ffi, j¾Okfha § fuh jeo.;a fõ’ m%d:ñl ì;a;sfha fi,shqf,diaa fl¢;s wyUq Èidk;shla iys;j msysá wdldrh’ m%d:ñsl ì;a;sh yd oaùS;shsl ì;a;sh:  m%d:ñsl ì;a;sh yd oaùS;shsl ì;a;sh oaú;shsl ì;a;sh iE§fï§ m%d:ñl ì;a;sh u; fi,shqf,daia fl¢;s ia;r jYfhka ;ekam;a fõ’ tlu ia:rfha msysgk fl¢;s tlu ÈYdk;sh fmkakqï lrk w;ru ,x ,xj msysghs’ ia:rfhla ia:rhg ÈYdk;sh fjkia fõ’ fuu fl¢;s w;r ,s.akSka fyda iqfnÍka hk øjH ;ekam;a fõ’ fuu jHqqqySh ieleiau ;sid m%d:ñl ì;a;sh yd iei£fï§ oaùlshsl ì;a;shg ±ä njla ,efnk w;ru we§ug m%;sfrdaOhla ,efí’ tfiau m%d:ñl ì;a;sh fuka fkdj oaù;shsl ì;a;sh c,hg yd wfkl=;a o%jH j,g wmdr.uH fõ’ Èú;shsl ì;a;sfha fi,shqf,daia fl¢;s j, nyq ia:Íh msysàu yd tla ia:rhl tlu ÈYdk;sh fmkaúu ,j (PLASTIDS):  ,j (PLASTIDS) ,j hkq Ydl ffi,hkays olakg ,efnk oaús mg,hka f.ka jgjqk fndfydaúg rjqï jHqy fõ’ ,j j, j¾Kh yd lD;Hh wkqj ,j my; wdldrhg j¾. flf¾’ yß; ,j (Chloroplasts) j¾K ,j (Chromoplast ) Yafõ; ,j (Leucoplasts) yrs; ,j CHLOROPLASTS:  yrs; ,j CHLOROPLASTS yß; ,jhl iïfm%aIK bf,lafg%dak wkaúlaIsh PdhdrEmhla:  yß; ,jhl iïfm%aIK bf,lafg%dak wkaúlaIsh PdhdrEmhla yß;,jfha bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIsh jHqyh:  yß;,jfha bf,lafg%dak wkaùlaIsh jHqyh yß; ,jhl jHqyh:  yß; ,jhl jHqyh fld, meye;s ffi, j, ffi, ma,diaufha we;s oaú mg,uh bkaøhsldjls’ we;=ˆ mg,h yß; ,jfha mQrlh ^mxcrh& ;=,g úysÈ mg,uh moaO;shla idohs’ tu mg, u.ska ;hs,fldhsv kï wdYhsld iEfoa’ ;hs,fldhsv f.dkq tl u; tl msysáfuka mxcr lKsld ^.%ekd& kï jHqy iEfoa’ mxcr lKsld ;hs,fldhsv mg, ;=< yß; m%o j¾Kl .s,s we;’ mxcr lKsld iïnkaO lrñka msysgk ;hs,fldhsv mg, wka;¾ mxcr lKsld iQia;r kï fõ’ yß; ,jfha mQrlh fyj;a mxcrh ;=< jD;a;dldr DNA iy 70 S j¾.fha rhsfndfidau msysghs’ mxcrfha msIag lKsld iy fïo f.da,sld we;’ yß; ,jfha lD;H:  yß; ,jfha lD;H Ydlhl yß; ,j jeäfhka msysgkqfha m;% j, bks udÿia;r ffi,hkaysh’ ,má l|kaj, iy fkdbÿkq M,hkays M,djrKfha o yß; ,j msysghs’ yß;,jfha mxcr lKsld j, ;hs,fldhsv mg,hka ys laf,dar*S,a a iy laf,dar*S,a b hk m%NdixYaf,aIl j¾Kl we;’ fïjd wdf,dal Yla;sh wjfYdaIKh lrhs’ m%NdixYaf,aIKfha wdf,dal m%;sl%shdj mxcr lKsld ;=,;a w÷re m%;sl%shdj mxcrh ;=,;a isÿfõ’ j¾K ,j iy Yafõ; ,j:  j¾K ,j iy Yafõ; ,j j¾K ,j j¾K ,j ;=, lefrdáfkdhsv j¾Klwvx.= fõ’ fïjd ly”;eô,s fyda r;= meye;s jßKl fõ’ nyq,;u lefrdáfkdhsv j¾Kl jkqfha lefrdáka iy iekaf;dms,a h’ u,a j, ly iy ;eô,s meyeh lefrdáka iy iekaf;dms,a j¾Kl ksid we;sfõ’ ñßia ;lald,s wdÈ M, bfok úg r;= meye jkafka j¾K ,j yg .ekSu ksidh’ lefrdàka iy iekaf;dmS,a wdf,dal yla;sh wjfYdaIKh lr laf,dar*S,a j,g ,nd fohs’ Yafõ; ,j fïjd wj¾Kh‘ wdyr ixÑ; lsßu fïjdfha lD;Hhfõ’ msIagh ixÑ; ,j msIag ,j fõ’ OdkH ìc w¾;dm,a wdlkao wdÈfh msIag ,j nyq,h’ fïo ,j ;=< fïoh ixÑ; lr we;’ ßla;lh (Vacuole):  ßla;lh (Vacuole) fndfyda mßK; iÔú Ydl ffi, j, ffi,h uOHfha ßla;lh kï jHqyhla msysghs’ ßla;lhla hkq tal mg,hlska jgjQ c,Sh ødjKhla wvx.= jHqyhls’ ßla;lh jgd we;s mg,h ;dk ma,diagh (Tonoplast) fyj;a ßla;l mg,h kñ fõ’ ßla;l hQIh fyj;a ffi, hqIh kñka y÷kajk ßla;lh ;=< jQ c,Sh ødjKfha isks” úúO whk yd wekaf;dihkSka jeks c, o%dù j¾Kl wvx.=fõ’ ffi,h ;=,g c,h Wrd .ekSu iy bka c,h msgùu i|yd ßla; hqIfha ødjH idkaaøKh n,mdhs’ tkï ffi,fha wdi%e;sl ;=,H;dj mj;ajd .eksug jeo.;a fõ’ nyqffi,sl Ôùkaf.a ffi, w;r iïnkaO;d :  nyqffi,sl Ôùkaf.a ffi, w;r iïnkaO;d Ydl iy i;=kaf.a foay ;=< we;s ffi, tlg iïnkaOù mgl idohs’ mglhl ;sfnk ffi, ixúOdkd;aulh’ tlsfkl yd iyfhda.fhka l%sshdlrhs’ idudkHfhka i;aj mgl j, we;s ffi, nysffi,Sh mQrlh (extra-cell matrix) kï cd,hlg ne£ mj;S’ th ffi, u.ska msg;g i%djh lrk ,o fm%daàk ld¾fndayhsfâ%g wdÈfhka iEÿk tlls’ fuu nysffi,Sh mQrlh u.ska mgl j, we;s ffi, tlsfklg ne| ;nhs’ iuyr wjia:d j,§ ffi, mQrl ikaê (cell-matrix junction) kï jHQy u.ska ffi, tlsfkl yd fl,skau ne£ mj;S’ i;aj mgl j, fujeks ikaê j¾. ;=kla o Ydl mgl j, tla ikaê j¾.hla o y÷kd f.k we;’ Slide118:  i;aj mgl j, yuqjk ikaê j¾. “ 1’ fviafudfidau (Desmosomes) fyj;a wdila; ikaê (Adhering Junctions) 2’ ixúOdk ikaê (Organization Junctions) fyj;a ysr ikaê ( tight Junctions) 3’ ikaksfõok ikaê(Communication Junctions) fyj;a ysveia ikaê (Gap Junctions ) Ydl mgl j, yuqjk ikaê jß.h ma,diaunkaO ( Plasmodesmata ) kï fõ’ Slide119:  l=vdwka;%fha wx.=,sld wmsÉPo ffi, w;r we;s ikaê j, msysàu bf,lafg%dak wkaùCISh PdhdrEmhla weiqfrka w¢k ,o rEmigyka fviafudfidauh Tight junction gap junction wka;¾uOH iQ;%sld Slide120:  fviafudfidau ikaê ysr ikaê ikaksfõok ikaê Desmosome Tight junction Communication junction wdila; ikaê Adhering junction ixúOdk ikaê Organization junction ysveia ikaê Gap junction fviafudfidau fyj;a wdila; ikaê:  fviafudfidau fyj;a wdila; ikaê fuu ia:dk j,§ hdno ma,diaud mg,j, ffi, ma,diauh me;af;a uX,dldr >kùSula msysghs’ tu uX, yryd msg;g ksslafuk wka;¾ ffi,Sh iQ;%sld iuQyhla tu ffi, fol w;r we;s wjldYh yryd hdno ffi,hg iïnkaO fõ’ fviafudfidau u.ska ffi, tlg ;Èka ne| ;nhs’ kuq;a ffi, mg, fol w;r wka;¾ ffi,Sh wjldYhla we;s ksid ffi, ;ßka øj ldkaÿùu je,elaùug wfmdfydi;a fõ’ wka;¾uOH iQ;s%ld iux.SlrK ikaê ^Organization junctions & ysr ikaê (Tight junctions):  iux.SlrK ikaê ^Organization junctions & ysr ikaê (Tight junctions) úfYaI fm%daàk wKq u.ska hdno ma,diau mg, hï ia:dk j,ska ;Èka tlg ne£ mj;S’ fï ksid tu ia:dk j,ska hdno ffi, w;r wka;¾ ffi,sh wjldY wjysr ú mj;s’ ffi, w;ßka øj ldkaÿ úu j,lS’ wdudYh “ l=vd wka;%h iy uq;%dYh hk wjhj j, wmsÉPofha mj;S’ ysr ikaêh wka;¾ ffi,Sh wjldYh kHIaáh CIQødka;fha wx.=,sld wmsÉPofha ffi, w;r we;s ysr ikaê ma,diaumg, iïnkaO lrk fm%daák hdno ma,diau mg, wka;¾ ffi,Sh wjldYh iúia;r rEm igyk ikaksfõok ikaê (communication junctions) ysveia ikaê (Gap junctions):  ikaksfõok ikaê (communication junctions) ysveia ikaê (Gap junctions) wka;¾ ffi,Sh wjldYh yryd hdno ffi, j, ffi, ma,diau tlsfklg iïnkaO flfrk kd, idok fm%daàk j,ska hdno ma,diau mg, tlg ne| ;nhs’ kd,sld yryd tla ffi,hl isg wfkla ffi,hg iSks“ weñfkda wï, jeks l=vd wKq j,g .uka l< yel’ fï ksid tu kd,sld ;=,ska ffi, w;r ikaksfõokhla isÿflf¾’ hdno ma,diau mg, tlg iïnkaO lrk fm%daàk kd,h ^1’5nm úYalïNh& wka;¾ ffi,sh wjldYh wmsÉPo ffi,hl ikaê j, msysàu:  wmsÉPo ffi,hl ikaê j, msysàu laIQødka;fha wmsÉPo ffi, j, ksoyia mDIaGhg wdikakju msysgkqfha ysrikaêh’ tu.ska ksoyia mDIAGfha isg øj ffi, w;ßka ldkaÿ ùu j,lshs’ ysr ikaê j,g my;ska fviafudfidau msysghs’tajd j,ska ffi, ;Èka tlg ne| ;nhs’ ysveia ikaê msysgkqfha thg my,sks’ fïjd ffi, w;r øjH yqjudrej iy ffi, w;r ikaksfõokh isÿlsÍug iyNd.sfõ’’ ksoyia mDIAGh CIQø wx.=,sld ysrikaê fviafudfidau ysveia ikaê ffi,h 1 ffi,h 2 ma,diau mg, ma,diau nkaO (Plasmodesmata):  ma,diau nkaO (Plasmodesmata) Ydl mgl j, oelsh yels tlu ikaês j¾.h ma,diau nkaO fõ’ hdno ffi, j, m%d:ñl ìs;a;s j, l+ ^m%d:ñl l+ fCIa;%& yryd tla ffi,hl isg wfkla ffi,hg úysfok m%dla ma,diaóh mg fuys msysghs’ fïjd ;=,ska ER kd,sld tla ffi,hl isg wfkla ffi,hg .uka lrhs’ fuho ikaksfõok ikaêhls’ ffi, ikaê j, lD;H:  ffi, ikaê j, lD;H ffi, w;r mj;sk ne£ï ksid” 1’ffi, j,g mgl iy bkaøsh jYfhka tluq;=j l%Shd lsÍug yelsfõ’ 2’úúO ffi, wdldr j, l%Shdldrlï w;r iux.SlrKhla we;s lr .ekSug ffi, j,g yelsfõ’ 3’ffi, w;r øjH yqjudreùug bv ,efí’’ 4’ffi, w;ßka ;r,uh øjH ldkaÿ úu j,lshs’ Slide127:  rEmh u; CLICK l,úg u;=jk ffi, rEmfha fldgia y÷kd.; yels±hs n,kak’ hï ia:dkhl§ keje;aùug wjYH kï by, l¨ ;Srej u; CLICK lrkak kej; l%Shd lsrSugo tu l¨ ;Srej u; CLICK lrkak B,ZÕ Slide tlg hdug o rEmh u; CLICK lrkak’ Slide128:  rEmh u; CLICK lrkak’ B;, j,ska Èiajk fldgia y÷kd.ekSug W;aidy lrkak’ hï ;ekl keje;aùug iy kej; l%Shd lsÍug wjYH kï rEmh u; fyda me;af;ka fmfkk l¿ ;Srej u; CLICK lrkak’ bj;a ùug fuys CLICK lrkak’ yrÔj úoHdj tallfha ffi, jHqyh iy lD;H hgf;a kshñ; úIh lreKq j,ska fldgila fuu jevigykska bosßm;a lr we;’:  yrÔj úoHdj tallfha ffi, jHqyh iy lD;H hgf;a kshñ; úIh lreKq j,ska fldgila fuu jevigykska bosßm;a lr we;’ fuh lsysm j;djla kej; kej; wOHkh lr § we;s m%Yak m;%hg ms<s;=re imhkak’ m%Yak fjku Flofy disk tll we;’ THANK YOU Slide131:  ví,sõ’ î’ fla’ fyÜáwdrÉÑ ÿñ÷ úf.dv fnïuq,a, úY%du,;a .=re úÿy,a lÓldpd¾h iy ¥ria: .=re WmfoaYl 033-2289394

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