Cell Structure and Function

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Information about Cell Structure and Function
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Published on November 11, 2008

Author: mswage

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Slide 1: The functions of the organism are divided up among its parts (organs and organ systems). All the parts cooperate to carry out all the functions of the whole organism. Some activities cannot be performed by only one person, but need a team of people. What type of activity requires a team of people to work together in order to complete a task? Answers might include building a human pyramid or constructing an arch out of blocks. 2. What do you think are some characteristics of a successful team? Divide up jobs and cooperate well with one another. 3. How is a multicellular organism similar to a successful team? Chapter 7-4Cell Structure and Function : Chapter 7-4Cell Structure and Function Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Cell Membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Slide 3: 7–2 Cell Structure I. Animal cells A. Cell Membrane B. Nucleus C. Cytoskeleton D. Centrioles E. Mitochondria F. Endoplasmic Reticulum G. Ribosomes H. Golgi Apparatus F. Lysosomes II. Plant cells A. Cell wall B. Vacuoles C. Chloroplasts III. Bacteria Section 7-2 Section Outline Slide 4: Image from: http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_membrane.html A CELL is . . . made of MOLECULES _______  ___________ ___________ ATOMS MOLECULES ORGANELLES 1. All living things are made of _____________.2. Cells are the basic unit of structure & function in an organism (= basic unit of __________)3. New cells are produced from _________________ cells : 1. All living things are made of _____________.2. Cells are the basic unit of structure & function in an organism (= basic unit of __________)3. New cells are produced from _________________ cells CELL THEORY CELL SIZE ___________ cells > _________ cells > _____________ Cells life existing PLANT ANIMAL BACTERIA CELL MEMBRANE(also called plasma membrane) : CELL MEMBRANE(also called plasma membrane) Cell membranes are made mainly of ________________ & __________________ PHOSPHOLIPIDS PROTEINS Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved LIPID TAILS ARE HYDROPHOBIC : LIPID TAILS ARE HYDROPHOBIC HYDROPHILIC  HYDROPHOBIC  Image by Riedell Oil and water don’t mix! : Oil and water don’t mix! Image from: http://employees.csbsju.edu/hjakubowski/classes/ch112/lipids/micbilayer.gif PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER : PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER Image from: http://employees.csbsju.edu/hjakubowski/classes/ch112/lipids/micbilayer.gif SEE HOW MEMBRANES FORM CELL MEMBRANE : CELL MEMBRANE Proteins that stick on the surface = _____________(either inside or outside of cell) Proteins that stick INTO membrane = ________________ (can go part way in or all the way through) PERIPHERAL INTEGRAL Slide 11: Recognize “self” GLYCOPROTEINS GLYCOPROTEINS are PROTEINS with carbohydrates attached Image from: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Membranes/membrane.htm Slide 12: 1.What are some things that can pass through a window screen? Answers may include air, fine dust, and rainwater. 2.What are some things that cannot pass through a window screen? Why is it important to keep these things from moving through the screen? Insects, leaves, and other matter that may fall from trees. The screen keeps out annoying insects and objects that may bring dirt into the home. 3. The cell is surrounded by a cell membrane, which regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Why is it important to regulate what moves into and out of a cell? Materials such as oxygen and food that are needed by the cell have to be able to get inside the cell. At the same time, excess materials have to leave the cell. WHAT DOES IT DO? : WHAT DOES IT DO? Acts as a boundary Controls what enters and leaves cell Images from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cellmembrane.html http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm Cell membranes MOVE! : Cell membranes MOVE! Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing Click here to See Fluidity Animation from: http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/anim/fluidmem.gif CYTOPLASM (Between nucleus and cell membrane) : CYTOPLASM (Between nucleus and cell membrane) ORGANELLE-small structure with a specific function (job) Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cytoplasm.html Image from: http://faculty.stcc.cc.tn.us/jiwilliams/labprojectsmenu.htm Organelles suspended in gel-like goo CELL MEMBRANE (PLASMA MEMBRANE) : CELL MEMBRANE (PLASMA MEMBRANE) Made mainly of ____________________ and _________________ HYDROPHOBIC “tails” of phospholipids make molecules line up as LIPID ________________ with POLAR heads facing _______ & NON-POLAR tails facing ________ Proteins attached to surface (inside or outside)= _____________ Proteins stuck into membrane = ______________ (can go part way in or all the way through) OTHER MOLECULES: GLYCOPROTEINS (proteins with ___________attached) STEROIDS (lipids) Membranes are ____________________________________ (=Semi-permeable) Allow certain molecules to pass through; but keep others out __________________ = gel-like material + organelles between nucleus and cell membrane “recognize self” phospholipids proteins BILAYER out in Peripheral Integral sugars SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE cytoplasm NUCLEUS : NUCLEUS Largest organelle in animal cells Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm NUCLEUS : NUCLEUS Surrounded by NUCLEAR ENVELOPE (also called NUCLEAR MEMBRANE) DOUBLE MEMBRANE Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_11.GIF NUCLEUS : NUCLEUS NUCLEAR PORES Openings to allow molecules to move in and out of nucleus Image from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCELL2.html WHAT DOES IT DO? : WHAT DOES IT DO? Contains genetic material (DNA) DNA is spread out as CHROMATINin non-dividing cells DNA is scrunched up as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells WHAT DOES IT DO? : WHAT DOES IT DO? Control center of cell Image from: Genetic code tells the cell’s parts what to do Image from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm NUCLEOLUS : NUCLEOLUS Dark spot in nucleus = __________ Makes RNA for ribosomes Image from: http://lifesci.rutgers.edu/~babiarz/histo/cell/nuc3L.jpg NUCLEOLUS NUCLEUS NUCLEOLUS : NUCLEUS NUCLEOLUS Surrounded by ______________ MEMBRANE called the NUCLEAR __________________ ___________ CENTER OF CELL Nuclear ___________ allow molecules in & out CONTAINS GENETIC MATERIAL (_______) Dark spot = NUCLEOLUS makes ___________________ (RNA) DNA is scrunched up as ______________ in dividing cells. DNA is spread out as ________________ in non-dividing cells. ENVELOPE PORES CONTROL DNA RIBOSOMES CHROMOSOMES CHROMATIN DOUBLE CYTOSKELETON : CYTOSKELETON Helps cell maintain shape Help move organelles around Made of PROTEINS: MICROFILAMENTS (Actin) & MICROTUBULES (Tubulin) Image from: http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/default.htm Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved CYTOSKELETON : CYTOSKELETON Made of PROTEINS called ______________ & _________________ FUNCTION: _________________________ ___________________________________ MICROTUBULES MICROFILAMENTS Helps cell maintain shape; Support; Helps in movement CENTRIOLES : CENTRIOLES Appear during cell division to pull chromosomes apart CENTRIOLES/MITOTIC SPINDLE : CENTRIOLES/MITOTIC SPINDLE Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin) Image from: http://www.coleharbourhigh.ednet.ns.ca/library/organelle_worksheet.htm CENTRIOLES : CENTRIOLES MICROTUBULES ANIMAL Made of __________________________ Only seen in _______________ cells during cell division Function:__________________________________ Pull chromosomes apart; MITOCHONDRION (plural=MITOCHONDRIA) : MITOCHONDRION (plural=MITOCHONDRIA) Look like “little sausages” Image from: http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/dfrankl/CURR/kin150/Images/mitochondria.jpg MITOCHONDRIA : MITOCHONDRIA Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane Folded inner membrane increases surface areafor more chemical reactions Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpe Has its own DNA MITOCHONDRIA : MITOCHONDRIA Come from cytoplasm in EGG You inherit your mitochondria from your mother! http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/p14%5b1%5d.jpg WHAT DOES IT DO? : WHAT DOES IT DO? Burns glucose to release energy Stores energy as ATP “Powerplant of cell” Images from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/mito.html http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html Image by: Riedell MITOCHONDRION (pl. MITOCHONDRIA) : MITOCHONDRION (pl. MITOCHONDRIA) Surrounded by _____________ membrane Contains its own ___________ _______________ of cell Burns ____________ Stores energy released as ______ Folded inner membrane = _________________ (increases surface area for more chemical reactions) DOUBLE DNA Power plant GLUCOSE ATP CRISTAE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM : ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 2 KINDS: SMOOTH or ROUGH Network of hollow membrane tubules Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_10B.GIF ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (Rough ER) : ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (Rough ER) Makes membrane proteins and proteins for export out of cell Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe Animation from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/er.html ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) : ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Has RIBOSOMESattached Proteins are made on ribosomes and inserted into Rough ER to be modified and transported Image from: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/cells/ER.jpg SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (smooth ER) : SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (smooth ER) Has NO ribosomes attached Has enzymes for special tasks Image from: http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0073.JPG SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (smooth ER) : SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (smooth ER) Image from:http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20eight/smooth%20er.gif Makes membrane lipids (steroids) Regulates calcium (muscle cells) Destroys toxic substances (Liver) ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM : ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM ROUGH ER SMOOTH ER (with ribosomes) (no ribosomes) Internal Network of membranes Rough ER: Attached ribosomes make _________________ which are modified and transported to Golgi for export Smooth ER: Makes membrane lipids(__________________) Regulates ________________ in muscles Breaks down _________________ in liver PROTEINS STEROIDS CALCIUM TOXINS RIBOSOMES : RIBOSOMES Made of PROTEINS and RNA Protein factory for cellJoin amino acids to make proteins Image from: http://www.ust.hk/roundtable/hi-tech.series/1_b1.jpg  Image by: RIedell RIBOSOMES : RIBOSOMES Can be attached to Rough ER OR free in cytoplasm Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe RIBOSOMES : RIBOSOMES Can be _________ or ___________ to Rough ER MADE OF ______________ & ________ FUNCTION: _____________________ FREE ATTACHED PROTEINS RNA MAKE PROTEINS GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY) : GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY) Pancake like membrane stacks Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h Image from: http://www.rsbs.anu.edu Slide 44: Animation from: http://www.franklincollege.edu/bioweb/A&Pfiles/week04.html See a Golgi movie GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY) : GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY) Looks like a “______________________” Made of ______________________ FUNCTION: Modify, sort, & package substances from ER for ______________ or _______________ out of cell stack of pancakes membranes export storage It’s ALL connected! : It’s ALL connected! LYSOSOMES : LYSOSOMES Membrane bound sacs that contain PROTEINScalled digestive enzymes Animation from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/lysosomes.html Digest food, unwanted molecules, old organelles, cells, bacteria, etc LYSOSOMES : LYSOSOMES Image modified from: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/lysosome.html See lysosomes in action: LYSOSOMES : LYSOSOMES Image from: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/lysosome.html Slide 50:  http://www.mgm.ufl.edu/images/bharfe/image3.jpg http://research.yale.edu/ysm/images/78.3/articles-apoptosis-cells.jpg “PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH” = ______________________ APOPTOSIS Lysosomes help digest unwanted cells Slide 51: Apoptosis plays a role in: Embryonic development Normal body cell maintenance Immune system responses Cancer AIDS infection Transplant rejection http://www.cellsalive.com/apop.htm Slide 52: LYSOSOMES Sac containing _________________________ FUNCTION: Digests __________________________________ Plays a role in ____________“Programmed cell death” Cell suicide for the good of the organism Digestive enzymes food molecules & unwanted cells/cell parts; APOPTOSIS FLAGELLA & CILIA : FLAGELLA & CILIA Made of PROTEINS called MICROTUBULES (9 + 2 arrangement) Image from: http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/flagella.jpg FLAGELLA : FLAGELLA Help in cell movement CILIA : CILIA Move cell itself Animation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm CILIA : CILIA Move substances past cells http://www.sk.lung.ca/content.cfm?edit_realword=hwbreathe CILIA : CILIA Many short FLAGELLA Few Long WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Animation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm CILIA & FLAGELLA : CILIA & FLAGELLA Made of PROTEINS called _______________ organized in a _________ arrangement that help with ___________________ CILIA ________ & __________ FUNCTION: ______________________ FLAGELLA ______ & ________ FUNCTION: _________________ MICROTUBULES 9 + 2 MOVEMENT MANY SHORT Move cells; move substances past cells FEW LONG Move cells WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT PLANT CELLS? : WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT PLANT CELLS? Cell wall HUGE vacuoles Chloroplasts No centrioles CELL WALL : CELL WALL Supports and protects cell Outside of cell membraneMade of carbohydrates & proteins Plant cell walls are mainly _____________ CELLULOSE http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm http://www.windows.ucar.edu/kids_space/images/brick_wall.jpg CELL WALL : CELL WALL Found OUTSIDE the ____________________ Provides ____________ & ________________ ___________________ makes plant cells sturdy Bacteria have cell walls made of _______________ Cell membrane SUPPORT PROTECTION CELLULOSE PEPTIDOGLYCAN VACUOLES : VACUOLES Storage space Image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/plant_cell.gif VACUOLES : VACUOLES Storage space for WATER, salts, proteins (enzymes), carbohydrates, and waste Vacuoles SMALL in ANIMAL CELLSNO VACUOLES IN BACTERIA Image from: http://www.metoliusfriends.org/csca/images/tupperware.jpg Contractile vacuoles control excess water in cells(HOMEOSTASIS) : Contractile vacuoles control excess water in cells(HOMEOSTASIS) 1 http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjun99/vidjun1.gif VACUOLES : VACUOLES Storage space for: _______________ Proteins, carbohydrates, water, waste Huge in __________cells , small in _____________ cells, Not in _________________ plant animal bacteria CHLOROPLASTS : CHLOROPLASTS Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose) http://stallion.abac.peachnet.edu/sm/kmccrae/BIOL2050/Ch1-13/JpegArt1-13/04jpeg/04-28_chloroplasts_1.jpg http://www.seorf.ohiou.edu/~tstork/compass.rose/photosynthesis/chloro_sun_bathing.gif CHLOROPLASTS : CHLOROPLASTS Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane Contains own DNA http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_essentials_2/cipl/04/HTML/source/04-17-chloroplast-nl.htm Thylakoid membrane sacs contain enzymes for photosynthesis CHLOROPLAST : CHLOROPLAST Surrounded by ____________ membrane Has own ________ _____________ =membrane sacs inside Contain CHLOROPHYLL where _______________________ happens FOUND ONLY IN _____________ CELLS PHOTOSYNTHESIS DOUBLE DNA THYLAKOIDS PLANT Slide 69: Plant Cell Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells WHAT’S DIFFERENT ABOUT BACTERIAL CELLS? : WHAT’S DIFFERENT ABOUT BACTERIAL CELLS? Cell wall NO NUCLEAR MEMBRANE DNA is circular No membrane bound organelles http://www.eurekascience.com/ICanDoThat/bacteria_cells.htm Slide 71: BACTERIA have a CELL WALL BUT… IT’S MADE OF DIFFERENT MOLECULES than plant cell walls! _______________ NOT CELLULOSE! Image from: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg PEPTIDOGLYCAN WHICH IS BIGGER? : WHICH IS BIGGER? _________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cell Animal cell bacteria Slide 73: DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL CELLS, PLANT CELLS, AND BACTERIA Slide 74: BACTERIA arePROKARYOTES PLANTS & ANIMALS are EUKARYOTES No membrane bound organelles Organelles with membranes Slide 75: USE WORDS FROM THE WORD BANKS TO COMPLETE THE VENN DIAGRAM COMPARISON SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS : SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. Transport cell membranes, homeostasis Photosynthesis and respiration ATP-ADP energy cycle Role of enzymes Mitochondria Chloroplasts LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things Slide 77: 9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of major taxa. Kingdoms Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors : Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors SOUTH DAKOTA SCIENCE STANDARDS : SOUTH DAKOTA SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. Transport cell membranes, homeostasis Photosynthesis and respiration ATP-ADP energy cycle Role of enzymes Mitochondria Chloroplasts LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things

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