Cell Respiration APBio

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Information about Cell Respiration APBio

Published on February 29, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

Harvesting Energy

Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The main stages of glucose metabolism are: Glycolysis Cellular respiration

The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is:

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP

The main stages of glucose metabolism are:

Glycolysis

Cellular respiration

 

Overview of Glucose Breakdown Glycolysis Occurs in the cytosol Does not require oxygen Breaks glucose into pyruvate Yields two molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose

Glycolysis

Occurs in the cytosol

Does not require oxygen

Breaks glucose into pyruvate

Yields two molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose

Overview of Glucose Breakdown If oxygen is absent fermentation occurs pyruvate is converted into either lactate, or into ethanol and CO 2 If oxygen is present cellular respiration occurs…

If oxygen is absent fermentation occurs

pyruvate is converted into either lactate, or into ethanol and CO 2

If oxygen is present cellular respiration occurs…

Overview of Glucose Breakdown Cellular respiration Occurs in mitochondria (in eukaryotes) Requires oxygen Breaks down pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water Produces an additional 32 or 34 ATP molecules, depending on the cell type

Cellular respiration

Occurs in mitochondria (in eukaryotes)

Requires oxygen

Breaks down pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water

Produces an additional 32 or 34 ATP molecules, depending on the cell type

Glycolysis Overview of the two major phases of glycolysis Glucose activation phase Energy harvesting phase

Overview of the two major phases of glycolysis

Glucose activation phase

Energy harvesting phase

Glycolysis Glucose activation phase Glucose molecule converted to highly reactive fructose bisphosphate by two enzyme-catalyzed reactions, using 2 ATPs

Glucose activation phase

Glucose molecule converted to highly reactive fructose bisphosphate by two enzyme-catalyzed reactions, using 2 ATPs

Essentials of Glycolysis (a) Glucose Glucose-6- Phosphate Glucose-6- Phosphate Fructose-1,6- Bisphosphate C C C C C C P P ATP ADP C C C C C C P C C C C C C ATP ADP P C C C C C C

Glycolysis Energy harvesting phase Fructose bisphosphate is split into two three-carbon molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) In a series of reactions, each G3P molecule is converted into a pyruvate, generating two ATPs per conversion, for a total of four ATPs Because two ATPs were used to activate the glucose molecule there is a net gain of two ATPs per glucose molecule

Energy harvesting phase

Fructose bisphosphate is split into two three-carbon molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)

In a series of reactions, each G3P molecule is converted into a pyruvate, generating two ATPs per conversion, for a total of four ATPs

Because two ATPs were used to activate the glucose molecule there is a net gain of two ATPs per glucose molecule

Essentials of Glycolysis ( b ) G3P P P C C C C C C Fructose-1,6- Bisphosphate P C C C P C C C P C C C P C C C

Glycolysis Energy harvesting phase (continued) As each G3P is converted to pyruvate, two high-energy electrons and a hydrogen ion are added to an “empty” electron-carrier NAD+ to make the high-energy electron-carrier molecule NADH Because two G3P molecules are produced per glucose molecule, two NADH carrier molecules are formed

Energy harvesting phase (continued)

As each G3P is converted to pyruvate, two high-energy electrons and a hydrogen ion are added to an “empty” electron-carrier NAD+ to make the high-energy electron-carrier molecule NADH

Because two G3P molecules are produced per glucose molecule, two NADH carrier molecules are formed

Essentials of Glycolysis (c) Pyruvates G3P P P P C C C P C C C P C C C P C C C C C C C C C P i P i NAD + NAD + NADH NADH ATP ATP ATP ATP ADP ADP ADP ADP

Glycolysis Summary of glycolysis: Each molecule of glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate A net of two ATP molecules and two NADH (high-energy electron carriers) are formed

Summary of glycolysis:

Each molecule of glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate

A net of two ATP molecules and two NADH (high-energy electron carriers) are formed

Fermentation of Dough

Fermentation Pyruvate is processed differently under aerobic and anaerobic conditions Under aerobic conditions, the high energy electrons in NADH produced in glycolysis are ferried to ATP-generating reactions in the mitochondria, making NAD+ available to recycle in glycolysis

Pyruvate is processed differently under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

Under aerobic conditions, the high energy electrons in NADH produced in glycolysis are ferried to ATP-generating reactions in the mitochondria, making NAD+ available to recycle in glycolysis

Fermentation Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted into lactate or ethanol, a process called fermentation Fermentation does not produce more ATP, but is necessary to regenerate the high-energy electron carrier molecule NAD+, which must be available for glycolysis to continue

Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted into lactate or ethanol, a process called fermentation

Fermentation does not produce more ATP, but is necessary to regenerate the high-energy electron carrier molecule NAD+, which must be available for glycolysis to continue

Fermentation Some microbes ferment pyruvate to other acids (as seen in making of cheese, yogurt, sour cream) Some microbes perform fermentation exclusively (instead of aerobic respiration) Yeast cells perform alcoholic fermentation

Some microbes ferment pyruvate to other acids (as seen in making of cheese, yogurt, sour cream)

Some microbes perform fermentation exclusively (instead of aerobic respiration)

Yeast cells perform alcoholic fermentation

Alcoholic Fermentation NAD + Glucoses Glycolysis Alcoholic Fermentation NAD + NADH ADP ATP ADP ATP Pyruvates Ethanols NAD + NAD + NADH C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C O O C O O NADH NADH

Fermentation Some cells ferment pyruvate to form acids Human muscle cells can perform fermentation Anaerobic conditions produced when muscles use up O 2 faster than it can be delivered (e.g. while sprinting) Lactate (lactic acid) produced from pyruvate

Some cells ferment pyruvate to form acids

Human muscle cells can perform fermentation

Anaerobic conditions produced when muscles use up O 2 faster than it can be delivered (e.g. while sprinting)

Lactate (lactic acid) produced from pyruvate

Lactate Fermentation NAD + Glucoses Glycolysis Lactate Fermentation NAD + NADH ADP ATP ADP ATP Pyruvates Lactates NAD + NAD + NADH C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C NADH NADH

Cellular Respiration In eukaryotic cells, cellular respiration occurs within mitochondria , organelles with two membranes that produce two compartments The inner membrane encloses a central compartment containing the fluid matrix The outer membrane surrounds the organelle, producing an intermembrane space

In eukaryotic cells, cellular respiration occurs within mitochondria , organelles with two membranes that produce two compartments

The inner membrane encloses a central compartment containing the fluid matrix

The outer membrane surrounds the organelle, producing an intermembrane space

A Mitochondrion Matrix A Cell One of Its Mitochondria A Crista Outer & Inner Membranes Intermembrane Compartment a b c

Cellular Respiration Overview of Aerobic Cellular Respiration: Glucose is first broken down into pyruvate, through glycolysis , in the cell cytoplasm Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrion (eukaryotes) and split into CO 2 and a 2 carbon acetyl group

Overview of Aerobic Cellular Respiration:

Glucose is first broken down into pyruvate, through glycolysis , in the cell cytoplasm

Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrion (eukaryotes) and split into CO 2 and a 2 carbon acetyl group

Cellular Respiration The acetyl group is further broken down into CO 2 in the Krebs Cycle (matrix space) as electron carriers are loaded Electron carriers loaded up in glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle give up electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC) along the inner mitochondrial membrane

The acetyl group is further broken down into CO 2 in the Krebs Cycle (matrix space) as electron carriers are loaded

Electron carriers loaded up in glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle give up electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC) along the inner mitochondrial membrane

Cellular Respiration A hydrogen ion gradient produced by the ETC is used to make ATP ( chemiosmosis ) ATP is transported out of the mitochondrion to provide energy for cellular activities

A hydrogen ion gradient produced by the ETC is used to make ATP ( chemiosmosis )

ATP is transported out of the mitochondrion to provide energy for cellular activities

Cellular Respiration

Pyruvate Breakdown in Mitochondria After glycolysis, pyruvate diffuses into the mitochondrion into the matrix space Pyruvate is split into CO 2 and a 2-carbon acetyl group, generating 1 NADH per pyruvate

After glycolysis, pyruvate diffuses into the mitochondrion into the matrix space

Pyruvate is split into CO 2 and a 2-carbon acetyl group, generating 1 NADH per pyruvate

Pyruvate Breakdown in Mitochondria Acetyl group is carried by a helper molecule called Coenzyme A, now called Acetyl CoA Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle and is broken down into CO 2

Acetyl group is carried by a helper molecule called Coenzyme A, now called Acetyl CoA

Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs Cycle and is broken down into CO 2

Pyruvate Breakdown in Mitochondria Electron carriers NAD + and FAD are loaded with electrons to produce 3 NADH & 1 FADH 2 per Acetyl CoA 6. One ATP also made per Acetyl CoA in the Krebs Cycle

Electron carriers NAD + and FAD are loaded with electrons to produce 3 NADH & 1 FADH 2 per Acetyl CoA

6. One ATP also made per Acetyl CoA in the Krebs Cycle

Formation of Acetyl CoA Pyruvates Acetyl CoA C C C C C C CoA CoA C C C C C C CoA CoA C C C C NAD + NAD + NADH NADH C O O C O O C C C C

Krebs Cycle: Summary NADH CoA NAD + NADH NAD + NADH ADP ATP H 2 O NAD + FADH 2 FAD H 2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Acetyl CoA C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C O O C O O C C C C C C C C C C CoA NAD + NADH C O O C C C C C H 2 O NAD + NADH ADP ATP C O O C C C C NADH NAD + FADH 2 FAD H 2 O C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C CoA CoA C C C C

Electron Transport Chain Most of the energy in glucose is stored in electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 Only 4 total ATP produced per glucose after complete breakdown in the Krebs Cycle

Most of the energy in glucose is stored in electron carriers NADH and FADH 2

Only 4 total ATP produced per glucose after complete breakdown in the Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport Chain NADH and FADH 2 deposit electrons into electron transport chains in the inner mitochondrial membrane Electrons join with oxygen gas and hydrogen ions to made H 2 O at the end of the ETCs

NADH and FADH 2 deposit electrons into electron transport chains in the inner mitochondrial membrane

Electrons join with oxygen gas and hydrogen ions to made H 2 O at the end of the ETCs

Mitochondrial Electron Transport System

Chemiosmosis Energy is released from electrons as they are passed down the electron transport chain Released energy used to pump hydrogen ions across the inner membrane Hydrogen ions accumulate in intermembrane space

Energy is released from electrons as they are passed down the electron transport chain

Released energy used to pump hydrogen ions across the inner membrane

Hydrogen ions accumulate in intermembrane space

Chemiosmosis Hydrogen ions form a concentration gradient across the membrane, a form of stored energy Hydrogen ions flow back into the matrix through an ATP synthesizing enzyme Process is called chemiosmosis

Hydrogen ions form a concentration gradient across the membrane, a form of stored energy

Hydrogen ions flow back into the matrix through an ATP synthesizing enzyme

Process is called chemiosmosis

Chemiosmosis Flow of hydrogen ions provides energy to link 32-34 molecules of ADP with phosphate, forming 32-34 ATP ATP then diffuses out of mitochondrion and used for energy-requiring activities in the cell

Flow of hydrogen ions provides energy to link 32-34 molecules of ADP with phosphate, forming 32-34 ATP

ATP then diffuses out of mitochondrion and used for energy-requiring activities in the cell

Mitochondrial Chemiosmosis (1)

Mitochondrial Chemiosmosis (2)

Mitochondrial Chemiosmosis (3)

Influence on How Organisms Function Metabolic processes in cells are heavily dependent on ATP generation (cyanide kills by preventing this) Muscle cells switch between fermentation and aerobic cell respiration depending on O 2 availability

Metabolic processes in cells are heavily dependent on ATP generation (cyanide kills by preventing this)

Muscle cells switch between fermentation and aerobic cell respiration depending on O 2 availability

Energy Harvested from Glucose

Energy Harvested from Glucose (Cytoplasm) Glucose 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 Pyruvates 2 CO 2 4 CO 2 2 ATP 4 ATP (Mitochondrial Matrix) (Inner Membrane) 2 ATP 32 ATP Electron Transport System Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Water Oxygen

The end

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