Cell Division - mitosis

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Information about Cell Division - mitosis
Education

Published on March 4, 2014

Author: AnandoNeethling

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A summarized power point on cell division - mitosis

* Chromosomes form when the chromatin network in the nucleus of the cell, coil up, shortens and thickens. * Each organism has a specific amount of chromosomes. * All humans have 46 chromosomes. * These chromosomes are arranged in identical pairs called homologous chromosome pairs – * Therefore humans have 23 homologous pairs of chromosomes. * These chromosomes is only visible during cell division processes. * One chromosome consist of 2 chromatids and one centromere that attach the chromatids together. * Each chromatid consist of genes which in turn consist of DNA.

* X and Y chromosomes: gonosomes/sexchromosomes Colored bands represents different genes

The cell cycle includes the following phases: * Interphase * Mitosis * Cytokinesis * Growth The result is 2 identical cells.

* *Allow an organism to grow. *Repairs damaged cells/tissue. *Replace dead cells/tissue. *Reproduction in some simple organisms.

* * In all somatic cells (include all body cells and excludes the sex cells – sperm/egg cells)

* * CONSIST OF A FEW PHASES: * INTERPHASE * PROPHASE * METAPHASE * ANAPHASE * TELOPHASE

* * Cell builds up enough energy for division process. * DNA replication occurs * Cell look normal, like before division

* * Nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear. * Chromatin become more tightly coiled, and condenses into individual chromosomes. Chromosomes arrange randomly in the cell. * Centrioli move to opposite poles, with spindle fibers stretching between them.

* * The centrioli reached the opposite poles with the spindle fibers in between. * The chromosomes arrange randomly on the equator, each single chromosome attaching to a separate spindle fiber by means of the centromere.

* * The spindle fibers pull tight. * The centromers attaching the chromatids of the chromosomes split in half. * Daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles.

* * Daughter chromosomes reach poles. * Nuclear envelope surrounds chromosomes. * Nucleolus reappear at each pole. * Chromosomes become less condense forming chromatin. * Two identical nuclei has been formed

* * Invagination of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane occurs. (Cleavage furrow forms in animal cells and a cytoplasmic plate forms in plant cells) * Continues until the cell in divided into 2 separate cells. (Identical to one another and to the original cell)

* Summary of the different phases in mitosis *

* * Cancer is caused by the loss of cell cycle controls in cancer cells. * Cancer cells usually continue to divide well beyond a single layer, forming a clump of overlapping cells called a tumor. * Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors. * They do not exhibit anchorage dependence or density dependent inhibition.

* Ovarian cancer cells dividing

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