CDR Plenary 3 SensorsCIPart1 Estrin

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Published on October 21, 2007

Author: funnyside

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NEON Instrumentation and Embedded Cyberinfrastructure:  NEON Instrumentation and Embedded Cyberinfrastructure Deborah Estrin Materials contributed by: NEON (SSN Working Group, NPO), CENS faculty, students, staff 5/10/05 Slide2:  Proposed NEON replicated array deployments Graphics by Jason Fisher In Situ Sensing:  In Situ Sensing Micro-Sensors and Embedded sensor networks are bringing about a paradigm change: Spatially and temporally dense , in situ observational capabilities will reveal the previously unobservable. The in situ observations will be fused with and focused by regional/global observations Temporal Granularity Spatial Granularity Span Course Fine Wide Narrow Fine Remote Sensing Embedded Networked Sensing Manual Manual Slide4:  Down-scaling of sensors and network systems Biosensors, chemical sensors, actuators, imagers, tags and platform types are under development enabling close-up sensing with increased reliability and at reduced energy costs Challenges: Physical environment is dynamic and unpredictable Wireless nodes present stringent energy, storage, communication constraints Deployment, maintenance, calibration, data integrity are all more difficult in large distributed systems Ocean Optics handheld Raman Spectrometer Future: Expanding Sensor Suite:  Future: Expanding Sensor Suite Commercially available devices available for many physical and chemical measures Advancements in sensor technologies will further transform NEON as new capabilities broaden physical, chemical, and biological in situ, autonomous, observations Physical Sensors: Microclimate above and below ground Chemical Sensors: gross concentrations Acoustic and Image data samples Acoustic, Image sensors with on board analysis Chemical Sensors: trace concentrations DNA analysis onboard embedded device Sensor triggered sample collection present future Organism tagging, tracking abiotic biotic NEON Fielded Instruments: Fixed:  NEON Fielded Instruments: Fixed Fundamental Instrumented Unit (FIU) automatically gather relevant biotic and abiotic data Comprises: 1 Advanced BioMesoNet Tower 3 Basic BioMesoNet Towers Associated sensor arrays 1 Basic BioMesoNet Tower and associated sensor array in experimental set-aside area Fielded Instrument Measurements:  Fielded Instrument Measurements Slide8:  Basic BioMesonet Tower Canopy-height dependent tower Basic BioMesonet Sensor Package Air temperature (at 10 m, 1.5 m, 10 cm, 0 cm, & 2 other canopy-dependent heights) Relative humidity (at 10 m, 1.5 m & 2 other canopy-dependent heights) Wind speed & direction (at 10 m, 1.5 m & 2 other canopy-dependent heights) Precipitation (rain & snow liquid equivalent) Barometric pressure (at 1.5 m) Soil moisture (at four depths from surface to rooting zone according to structural horizon, two depths of witch are standardized NEON system-wide ) Soil temperature (at -5, -15, & -30cm) Advanced BioMesonet Tower Canopy-height dependent tower Advanced BioMesonet Sensor Package [Basic BioMesonet Sensor Package, plus] Incoming, reflected, total & diffuse solar radiation (at 1.5 m) Sensible and latent heat & CO2 fluxes CO2 concentration (at 8-10 vertical levels from ground to above canopy) H2O vapor (at 8-10 vertical levels from ground to above canopy) Stable isotopes of C & O in H2O & CO2 CO concentration (at 3-5 m) NO, NO2, NOx concentrations O3 concentration (at 3-5 m) Airborne particulates (e.g., pollen, bacteria) Dry deposition of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, SO2, & HNO3 Wet deposition of NH4+, NO3-, o-PO43-, SO42-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, & pH BioMesoNet Tower Measurements Sensor Arrays:  Sensor Arrays Sensor Arrays distributed wireless platforms (Neon Wireless Platform (NWP)). configurable sensor suites, sensing actions, local storage, analysis data returned over wireless network Specially configured nodes will serve as gateways to NEON archives and control points Canopy Microclimate Sensor Array: Network of biotic and abiotic sensors, including PAR, air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, leaf wetness, leaf temperature. ~12 sensors per array, 12 arrays per site. Soil SN: Network of soil sensors, including soil temperature, moisture, water potential, soil chemistry (pH, CO2, O2, N), surface fluxes, automated mini-rhizotrons. ~25 sensors per array, 12 arrays per site Aquatic SN: Network of sensors that measure biotic and abiotic parameters in streams ~3-5 sensors per array, 1 array per site Slide10:  Terrestrial Sensor Measurements Canopy Microclimate Sensor Arrays Total, diffuse, incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) Sunshine duration Air temperature (at 10 m,1.5 m,10 cm,0 cm, Climate only) Relative humidity (at 0 m & 1.5 m, Climate only) Precipitation (rain & snow liquid equivalent, Climate only) Leaf wetness (at 10 m,1.5 m,10 cm,0 cm) Leaf temperature (at heights as per leaf wetness) Soil Sensor Array Root & mycorrhizae phenology Soil respiration (CO2 emission) Soil NO3- concentration Soil O2 concentration Soil pH Soil water potential Soil water volume Soil moisture (at four depths from surface to rooting zone according to, two structural horizon depths of witch are standardized NEON system-wide) Soil temperature (at depths as per soil moisture) Biological temperature (i.e. soil/leaf/canopy surface temperature) Aquatic Sensor Array Measurements:  Aquatic Sensor Array Measurements Small Stream Platforms Soil moisture Dissolved organic carbon concentration Dissolved O2 concentration profiles Nutrient concentrations: NO3- (possibly NH4+, PO43-, Si, as automated technology allows) pH profiles Conductivity Temperature Turbidity Chlorophyll Surface PAR and UV Automated water sample collection for additional chemical profiles (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, Si), and biological (plankton) and isotopic measurements of surface waters NEON Fielded Instruments: Mobile/Relocatable Platform:  NEON Fielded Instruments: Mobile/Relocatable Platform Relocatable Tower System Permanent tower pad Tower base Relocatable tower superstructure with Basic BioMesoNet Sensor Package and additional sensors Rapid Deployment System Towing vehicle Trailer to transport one or more of the following modular units: Aquatics, Canopy, Climate, Invasive Species, Education, Soils, Infectious Disease Organism Tracking and Infrastructure:  Organism Tracking and Infrastructure Organism Tracking Fixed (automated) and handheld receivers covering areas of 3 hectares; support monitoring of deer mice. Infrastructure Power (line and solar); Wireless communications; Global Positioning System (GPS) and other geolocation services (e.g., Wireless Fidelity (WIFI) triangulation); local replicated storage; physical security. Fundamental Sentinel Unit Measurements:  Fundamental Sentinel Unit Measurements Organism Tracking System Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) Field Observation Programs Aquatic biogeochemistry Aquatic sediments Vectors and pathogens Mosquito (e.g, West Nile, encephalitis, malaria) Deer mouse (e.g. Hanta-virus, Lyme disease) Phenology Standardized lilacs Dominant plant species Animals of local & national interest Biodiversity Soil microbes Ground beetles Plants Algae Aquatic invertebrates Fish Breeding bird survey Functional Genomics Functional diversity Pathway diversity Genetic basis of biogeochemical fluxes Genetic basis of chemical transformations Handheld field instrument: “BioPDA”:  Handheld field instrument: “BioPDA” Approximate number of sensors per domain:  Approximate number of sensors per domain NEON Open, Evolvable Architecture:  NEON Open, Evolvable Architecture High resolution measurement of key biological drivers (physical, chemical) Observation of realizable biological response variables In situ organism tracking, imaging, sample collection Remote sensing of land cover at large spatial scale Seamless incorporation of new biological, chemical and physical sensors as technology matures Based on well defined hardware and software interfaces and tools (plug and play) e.g., from nearer term instruments (such as automated dust collectors) to longer term (automated genomic analysis) Embedded CI Software:  Embedded CI Software Data routing, duty cycling Reliable, disruption tolerant transport Time and position System health monitoring Calibration tests System tasking System configuration and reconfiguration (plug and play) Directed manual sampling Component interconnect and integration:  Component interconnect and integration Instruments (passive,active,analyzers) In Situ Platform (time, location, storage, processing, communication services) NEON archives and central CI Packaging, raw/processed data, installation, calib procedures System integration,standard connectors, Standard wireless, power Calibration support, Raw data archiving Slide20:  Why multi-scale distributed sensor-networking will transform ecology Radioastronomy Very Large Array Computing Internet Single Telescopes Supercomputers Field ecology … because it has done so over and over again NEON Individual observations

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