Published on September 29, 2008
The Education Division of Creative Commons Ahrash N Bissell
ccLearn is a division of Creative Commons that is dedicated to supporting open learning and open educational resources ( OER ). Our mission is to minimize barriers to the creation, sharing, and reuse of educational materials—legal barriers, technical barriers, and social barriers.
The world is changing. Tebndxt by Armel Learn
“ Content is no longer limited to the books, filmstrips, and videos associated with classroom instruction; networked content today provides a rich immersive learning environment incorporating accessible data using colorful visualizations, animated graphics, and interactive applications.” “ Alongside these technology improvements, “ open educational resources ” offer learning content and software tools that support search, organization, interaction, and distribution of materials.” “ Increasingly,… the Web is being recognized as an enabler for collaborative creation of significant information resources that aggregate contributions from hundreds or thousands of individuals.” What is the future of education…?
“ Adopt programs and policies to promote open educational resources . Materials funded by NSF should be made readily available on the web with permission for unrestricted reuse and recombination .” http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2008/nsf08204/nsf08204.pdf
“ Adopt programs and policies to promote open educational resources . Materials funded by NSF should be made readily available on the web with permission for unrestricted reuse and recombination .”
Text What are Open Edu c ational Resour c es? Michael Reschke cba
available for anyone to use, share, and adapt to suit their educational needs. Michael Reschke cba Open education depends on a high-quality pool of freely licensed resources. OER give learners access to a broad array of knowledge materials... Learn
Open education supports • formal education • informal education • lifelong learning Tebnaxt http://www.flickr.com/photos/mimax/303567279/ by Max Learn
Open education supports
• formal education
• informal education
• lifelong learning
Open education supports equal education opportunity, regardless of region, income, or level of technology. http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1511413221/ Vern Hart Ribna. Learn
What makes resources OPEN? Text The ability to: • Access • Share — Copy, Distribute, Display • Adapt — Perform, Translate • Derive — Remix The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. More permissions = More open.
The ability to:
• Share — Copy, Distribute, Display
• Adapt — Perform, Translate
• Derive — Remix
Tebnaxt by Susan Ware http://www.flickr.com/photos/suswar/2500249119/ Learn
OER can be easily modified and adapted to different learning circumstances. Advanced technology is not necessary. Ribna . http://www.flickr.com/photos/judybaxter/4462965/ . Judy Baxter Ribna . alexanderimages http://www.flickr.com/photos/9432444@N05/656500490/ . Ribna . http://www.flickr.com/photos/venky7/2157716223/ Venkatesh Hariharan Learn
OER form a Network. Text • Teachers like to share and adapt materials for the classroom. • Students consume these materials, but they only learn by actively taking part in the process of creation . • We learn by doing what has been done before; we create by re -creating, by building off others’ work. Learning o cc urs through ex c hange of and c ollaboration on the expression of ideas.
Open education helps teachers ... as well as learners. Tebndxt Zeetz Jones http://flickr.com/photos/zeetzjones/562496275/ Tebnxt http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/387971417/ Thomas Hawk Learn
Mutual Learning Sharing & Most students begin their education highly motivated to learn . Most teachers are highly motivated to share knowledge , not only with their students but with anyone who can benefit. bnd === by Lara Eller http://www.flickr.com/photos/99079793@N00/24786113/ Learn
OER can be easily modified, translated, and shared, so they encourage local production of educational resources suited to both individual and societal values, language and culture. Ribna . http://flickr.com/photos/ethnocentrics/213657197/ by Ethnocentrics by Thomas Sly http://flickr.com/photos/tomsly/87973199/ Rib Ribn by nofrills http://flickr.com/photos/nofrills/10895361/ Learn
The educational community is built on sharing. Open education fosters a culture of learning and collaboration, allowing educators and learners to develop new applications and contexts for the use of educational materials. http://flickr.com/photos/ryanr/142455033/ ryancr bn=
Text But there are Legal Barriers. Nan c y cbn http://flickr.com/photos/pugno_muliebriter/1384247192/
Expression is often restri c ted. Text • Expression can be, and often is, fully copyrighted. • Copyrighted material cannot be shared, adapted, or derived... without express permission by the owner of the copyright. • But when people, especially educators, put things on the web, it is usually for the express purpose of making it freely available. • Unfortunately, copyright overrules this intent. And if you don’t li c ense your work to be open, it automati c ally defaults to all-rights-reserved c opyright.
When IP restricts access, adaptation and sharing, Tebaxt Simon music http://flickr.com/photos/fruey/1368008974/ protecting the right to education. OER helps open doors Learn
cc Learn promotes CC Li c enses. Text • CC Licenses are copyright. They do not replace copyright, but instead grant a priori permissions for certain uses that would otherwise be disallowed. • So the author still retains her rights to a work; she simply chooses to give away those rights she does not need or want. • This makes perfect sense in education especially, since most people want to share and build off of each other’s work. b n d a
CC offers an easy way to share materials, vs the murky interpretations of fair use in c opyright law. openDemo c ra c y cba http://flickr.com/photos/opendemocracy/542303769/
Text Text b CC Li c enses support Interoperability bn bd ba bnd bna p ccLearn wants education to be here: “ All rights reserved” Publi c Domain Attribution Only are clear, comprehensible and compatible b CC BY
The best licenses for education enable Text • Learner engagement • Innovation • Adaption to fit local needs
d http://flickr.com/photos/aldhil/1933995970/ Melilotus bn=de Licenses that don’t permit derivative works limit the flexibility to translate or modify the work for an educational context, or to distribute it in alternate formats.
http://flickr.com/photos/tantek/85610375/ Tantek Çelik cbn n a Likewise, licenses with non-commercial or even share-alike provisions may limit interoperability of educational materials and make it difficult to share resources on- and offline.
Truly open licensing is essential Text Maximizes the potential of educational materials The ways in which materials are used determines their true impact
Maximizes the potential of educational materials
The ways in which materials are used determines their true impact
What about legal issues specific to K-12 and/or science education? http://flickr.com/photos/durian/268701719/ Adrian Bailon bn=de
For young learners, we must also negotiate: Text • Privacy laws • Parental consent • Copyrightability For science education, we must also negotiate: Text • Data • Integrated analysis • International issues
Do we need a rights-free space for education…. CC “Zero”? © 0
Do we need a rights-free space for education….
Text But what about Te c hni c al Barriers? http://flickr.com/photos/tantek/85610375/ Tantek Çelik cbn
CC over c omes Te c hni c al Barriers Text CC Licenses are also clear to search engines • CC Licenses specify licensing permissions on works in metadata (RDFa) Reference for this and later slides (where noted): Towards a Global Learning Commons: ccLearn . Bissell, Ahrash and James Boyle. Educational Technology 4(6). Nov-Dec 2007. Pages 5-9. • The metadata are picked up by search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and Flickr
• CC Licenses specify licensing permissions
on works in metadata (RDFa)
Other Te c hni c al Barriers Text Incompatibility of: • Encryption protocols • Video formats • Streaming technologies So that even though OER may be licensed openly, they are prevented from being used openly, negating the point of openness. A great deal of “open educational resources” are encased in technology not easily translatable to more universal, interoperable standards. David Tames cbna http://flickr.com/photos/kino-eye/354623704/ (Bissell and Boyle)
• Video formats
And finally, the So c ial Barriers to Open Edu c ation Judy Baxter cbna http://flickr.com/photos/judybaxter/501511984/
Text Social Barriers Standardized Curricula Tenure Standards n Developed World Developing World Mine vs Commons vs Noncommercial Term Resources Teacher Education Socioeconomic Factors Time Management Teacher Salary (Bissell and Boyle) Technical Unfamiliarity Workload Organizational Pressures Agency Cultural Awareness, Misconceptions
Endowments Memberships Donations Conversions Value-added sales Text Sustainability models… Contributor pays Sponsorship Institutional Governmental Marketing for durable goods From: JISC OER Briefing Paper http://wiki.cetis.ac.uk/images/0/0b/OER_Briefing_Paper.pdf
Marketing for durable goods
Learn Proje c ts CC Portal For Educators Universal Education Search ODEPO Project
• Extensible • Federated Universal Education Search • Scalable A search for all educational resources on the web should be:
Language and supporting materials more appropriate for the educational context What are the different CC licenses and what do they mean? Choosing a CC license for educational materials CC Portal For Educators Point of departure for understanding the bigger issues and hopes in education
The O pen D atabase of E ducational P rojects and O rganizations - Identify potential collaborators - Network - Add your project - Add additional info - Search by various properties ODEPO Project - Licensing Information - Open Education Organizations - Affiliated Projects and Organizations Find:
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