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Published on January 28, 2008

Author: Tutu1

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 8:  Chapter 8 Motivation, Emotion, Mood, and Involvement Chapter Spotlights:  Chapter Spotlights How human needs motivate consumers to buy What specific motives play a role in marketplace behavior How marketers can elicit specific emotions to sell products and services How moods affect consumption patterns How consumer involvement with products and services changes the effects of marketing information Consumer Motivation:  Consumer Motivation It is the drive to satisfy needs and wants, both physiological and psychological, through the purchase and use of products and services. Stages (Exh. 8-2) of the motivation process: Latent need Drive Want or desire Goal Behavior Behavioral Models of Motivation:  Behavioral Models of Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Motivation as a means of satisfying human needs Five types of needs: Physiological: food, water, sleep, exercise, sex Safety: security, shelter, normalcy in daily life Love and belongingness: affection and acceptance as part of a family or group Esteem or status: respect from others; need to feel competent, confident, important, and appreciated; self-respect Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s own potential, to achieve dreams and ambitions; hunger for knowledge and understanding; to do things for the sake of doing them Marketing implications Models (continued) :  Models (continued) Dichter’s major consumption motives 1950 study regarding the consumer needs motivating the purchase of Ivory soap (P&G). He found a relation between the use of soap and the need for spiritual purity 12 key motivations lead to product purchase Models (continued):  Models (continued) Sheth’s consumer motives Five dimensions of motivation concerning products/services benefits Functional – utility or function performed Aesthetic/emotional – appearance or attractiveness Social – status or esteem value Situational – unexpected benefit Curiosity – interest aroused Consumer Motivation and Marketplace Behavior:  Consumer Motivation and Marketplace Behavior Influence on consumer decision making (Exh 8-6) Influence on consumer conflict resolution Approach-approach conflict – choosing between two equally attractive options Approach-avoidance conflict – considering an option that has both good and bad outcomes Avoidance-avoidance conflict – choosing between two undesirable options Triggering Consumer Motives:  Triggering Consumer Motives Encouraging need recognition Attempt to move consumer from actual state to desired state Triggering motivation through need-benefit segmentation Understand consumer benefits sought and offer goods and services to deliver these benefits to specific target segments Emotions:  Emotions Emotions are affective responses that reflect the activation within the consumer of beliefs that are deep-seated and value-laden. Beliefs  emotions Emotions (continued):  Emotions (continued) Experiencing emotions People purchase products and services to experience certain emotional states or to achieve emotional goals (emotional arousal) Emotions and consumer satisfaction: e.g. joy or pleasant surprise yield satisfaction while distress or anger yield dissatisfaction Emotions and communication: e.g. pleasure or displeasure with ad yields similar attitudes toward the ad and the product. Some ads are designed to arouse specific emotions. How Emotional States are Induced:  How Emotional States are Induced People have little control over the affective system Affective responses to environmental cues are immediate and automatic (e.g. color) Some control is possible through our behavior Advertising and emotions Anger Fear Humor Warmth Mood:  Mood It is an affective state that is general and pervasive Moods are much less intense than emotions Consumers are much less conscious of moods and the effect of moods on marketplace behavior. Consumer moods are induced in three different marketplace settings (Exh. 8 –12): Service encounters Point-of-Purchase stimuli Communications Effects of Moods:  Effects of Moods On consumer recall Recall increases if mood at time of encoding and retrieval match On consumer evaluation Negative mood  negative product or service evaluation (and vice versa) On consumer behavior Positive mood increases giving, encourages consumers to seek variety and their willingness to try new things Inducing Positive Moods:  Inducing Positive Moods In service encounters Transaction mechanics Service personnel Physical setting In marketing communications Media placement – medium is part of the message Message aspects – claims, emotional music, pictures, etc. Involvement:  Involvement A heightened state of awareness based on importance that motivates consumers to seek out, attend to, and think about product information prior to purchase. Two types of involvement Situational – tied to a particular situation/circumstance and specific product Enduring – tied to a product category; persistent over time and across different situations Effects of Consumer Involvement:  Effects of Consumer Involvement Information search High involvement  greater information search (more shopping around) Information processing Depth of comprehension High involvement  deeper comprehension Extent of cognitive elaboration High involvement  more thinking Extent of external arousal High involvement  greater emotional arousal Information transmission High involvement  more frequent information transmission (talking about products) to others Causes of Consumer Involvement:  Causes of Consumer Involvement Personal factors Product’s image and needs it serves are congruent with a consumer’s self-image, values and needs  high involvement Product factors The greater the perceived risk the greater consumer involvement The more alternatives there are to choose from, the greater the involvement The higher the hedonic value of goods, the greater the involvement The more socially visible a product is, the greater the involvement Causes (continued):  Causes (continued) Situational factors Social pressure can significantly increase involvement The imminence of the decision heightens involvement Irrevocable purchase decisions heighten enrollment Involvement-based Consumer Behavior Models:  Involvement-based Consumer Behavior Models Low-involvement learning model Replacing old brand perceptions with new beliefs without attitude change Learn (information)-Feel (attitude)-Do (behavior) hierarchy (See Exhibit 8 – 14) High involvement/high thinking (Thinker): Learn-Feel-Do High involvement/high feeling (Feeler): Feel-Learn-Do Low involvement/low thinking (Doer): Do-Learn-Feel Low involvement/low feeling (Reactor): Do-Feel-Learn Models (continued):  Models (continued) Level of message processing model Consumer attention to advertising is influenced by the following four levels of involvement: pre-attention, focal attention, comprehension, and elaboration Product versus brand involvement model Brand loyalists Information seekers Routine brand buyers Brand switchers

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