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Information about CausativeGetandHaveSoCloseSoDifferent.Cu...

Published on February 7, 2009

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Causative Get and HaveSo Close, So Different : Causative Get and HaveSo Close, So Different By Gaetanelle Gilquin Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium Presented by Christie Curie English 5050 Morphology Instructor: Dr. Robert Van Trieste All quotes taken from the article, Causative Get and Have: So Close, So Different unless otherwise noted. Slide 2: Purposes of the study: 1) Highlight the similarities and the differences of the causative verbs: get and have. 2) Compare the frequency of the two causatives and the nonfinite complements they can take.   3) Investigate the various elements of the causative construction by using the Frame Semantics Theory and illustrate how this theory can be combined with a corpus-based approach. 4) Point to some tendencies regarding the co-occurrence patterns of causative get and have. Slide 3: D E F I N I T I O N S CAUSATIVE VERBS “Causative constructions are those that depict one agent successfully causing another agent to perform an action.” example: He got the mechanic to fix the car. I had Julie pierce my ears. Note: other causative verbs include let and make The Grammar Book; Celce-Murcia, Marianne and Larsen-Freeman, Diane p. 655. Slide 4: Corpus: A collection of writings or recorded remarks used for linguistic analysis. ( Corpora (pl) generally contain written and spoken texts and can be derived from any variety of sources including: academic texts, television shows, journals, magazines,etc. In corpus-based research, the corpus is queried or ‘searched’ according to specific criteria, and the results then form the basis for the research. D E F I N I T I O N S CORPUS-BASED RESEARCH: Slide 5: FRAME SEMANTICS: “a cognitive theory developed by Charles Fillmore which assumes continuity between language and experience (Fillmore 1982, 111) claiming that in order to understand the meaning of a word, speakers must first have knowledge of its conceptual structure, that is the “structured background of experience, beliefs or practices.” (Fillmore and Atkins 1992, 76) Jamie bought a puppy from the kennel. FRAME SEMANTICS Miriam R. L. Petruck University of California, Berkeley D E F I N I T I O N S FRAME SEMANTICS Buyer Seller Buy Sell Commercial Transaction Semantic Frame: Slide 6: The explosion caused the temperature to rise. CAUSER CAUSEE EFFECT When the effect is realized as a transitive verb, the basic frame of causation is combined with the frame of transitive action, which is made up of an AGENT (Causee) and a PATIENT She had them send her mail. CAUSER CAUSEE EFFECT PATIENT Transitive Action Frame D E F I N I T I O N S FRAME SEMANTICS CAUSATION FRAME Slide 7: Data & Method International Corpus of English-GB (British Component): a one-million word data base The author searched for all as follows: GET/HAVE (transitive verbs) +object + nonfinite complement DISCLAIMERS: 1) The data is limited to British English: get and have are thought to be used more frequently in American English. 2) The database contains 60% spoken data and 40% written data. Frequency of get is significantly more frequent in speech than writing, consequently the overall higher frequency of get may be explained by the fact that ICE-GB contains more spoken than written material. Slide 8: Causative get and have: similarities and differences Get and have can be used interchangeably in many instances: I had him fix the brakes / I got him to fix the brakes The professor had the students recite the text. The professor got the students to recite the text. There are many instances where they are not interchangeable: She got the TV to work. *She had the TV to work. The Romans had the army surrounded. *The Romans got the army surrounded. Causative get and have share a number of syntactic characteristics: They can govern an infinitive, past participle or present participle •John has his son work. [infinitive] •John has his speeches written by a ghostwriter. [past participle] •John has his writer working on a new speech. [present participle] Slide 9: The frequency of causative get and have in speech and writing Get is significantly more frequent in speech than in writing and overall, get is used more frequently than have. Slide 10: From this table, we see: The infinitive and the past participle construction is common with get: (13) . . . by getting inspectors to talk aloud . . (infinitive) (14). .were going to get a picture of she and I done. (past participle) With the causative have the past participle construction represents an overwhelming majority of 71.4% (18). . . The European communities found a need to have a large amount of translation work done .. . . Comparison of get and have and their nonfinite complements Status and Nature of the CAUSER (subject) with get and have. : Status and Nature of the CAUSER (subject) with get and have. Get and have both are used predominately with an animate CAUSER. Example of causative get/have with an animate subject: Sarah got Julie to work on the project. Example of causative get/have with an inanimate subject: (21) . . A growing economy would soon have unit labour costs tumbling. Slide 12: CAUSEE the CAUSEE was deleted in most past participle constructions (because it was pragmatically predictable or irrelevant) (30) When did you last have your teeth seen and cleaned? [by a dentist] With both get and have, the CAUSEE is frequently deleted entirely. (29)King Wilhelm of Prussia even had a belvedere built on the end of the Marly aqueduct. Slide 13: PATIENT In the causative construction, the PATIENT is most often inanimate: (43) . . . It would only be prudent to have the tree cut down . . . (44) . . . he got some guy to write a program for him. EFFECT With both get and have, the CAUSEE, retains some volition – it requires a greater effort on the part of the CAUSER than with other causative verbs such as make and let. (46) What we are trying to get you to realise is that defining government is a very difficult thing to do. Slide 14: Collocations with get and have Both get and have share the idea of a human causee (doer) who is told or commissioned by CAUSER to do a job. (60) we had Julie Felix come down and do some stuff for us . . Get is more often used to express persuasion and occurs with words expressing uncertainty: think, normally, perhaps, probably, at least, slightly, some. Whereas have doesn’t have this undertone of resistance: (51) I had the machine running this morning . . Have doesn’t exhibit any real collocations, but sometimes brings out the idea that something is desirable, or something that should be done. (58)I believe we should have this assessed for patenting . . Slide 15: Final Comments This corpus-based study presents some interesting information regarding the use of causative get and have. The author concludes by saying that further research “is likely to reveal a hitherto largely unknown area, indeed a whole new world.”

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