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Published on December 31, 2007

Author: BAWare

Source: authorstream.com

Cattle Production and the Environment:  Cattle Production and the Environment Departments of Animal Science, Biological & Agricultural Engineering & Crop Science Slide3:  Swine and Beef Systems: Need close management to ensure that nutrients are overloaded, leading to surface or groundwater contamination. Environmental Degradation by Cattle:  Environmental Degradation by Cattle Damage to stream, pond, river banks Erosion, sediment loading, increased turbidity Direct deposition of feces & urine Nutrients (N & P) Bacteria, viruses, protozoa Nutrient enrichment of surface and ground waters Pasture Production Systems:  Pasture Production Systems We grow grass to harvest nutrients Meat, milk and hay Healthy crop/forage production is essential to proper waste utilization Seasonal variations Crop variations Establishment Weed Control Grazing and harvest considerations Overview:  Overview Nutrient Cycling Nutrient and Waste Application Insuring Proper Harvest and Regrowth Water Quality and Stream Protection Nutrient Cycling:  Nutrient Cycling Nutrient Cycling:  Nutrient Cycling Inputs Feed Nutrients Nutrient Cycling:  Nutrient Cycling Inputs Feed Nutrients Outputs Meat Milk Hay Nutrient Cycling:  Nutrient Cycling Inputs Feed Nutrients Outputs Meat Milk Hay Mineralization Plant Uptake Nutrient Cycling:  Nutrient Cycling Inputs Feed Nutrients Outputs Meat Milk Hay NO3 - Leaching Mineralization Plant Uptake Nutrient Cycling:  Nutrient Cycling Inputs Feed Nutrients Outputs Meat Milk Hay NO3 - Leaching NH3 - Volatilization Mineralization Plant Uptake Waste & Nutrient Application:  Waste & Nutrient Application Nutrient Application emphasize uniform application Crop Growth insures uniform nutrient uptake Grazing and Harvest nutrient utilization and removal Harvest and Vegetation Re-growth:  Harvest and Vegetation Re-growth Grazing Program Soil Fertility Nutrients & Wastes Farm Layout Grazing Program:  Grazing Program Program Goal Grazing Method continuous, rotational stocking, strip grazing achieve different goals crop utilization & re-growth manure distribution management Soil Fertility:  Soil Fertility Soil Testing yearly on field that receive applications of animal waste representative samples 15-20 cores for every 20 acres Lime Application Nutrient application recommendations Nutrients and Wastes:  Nutrients and Wastes Waste Sampling 60 days from application date representative sample Application agronomic rates for N application rate timing application method Nutrient and Wastes: Application & Distribution:  Nutrient and Wastes: Application & Distribution Spreader Calibration Application rates Spreader uniformity Waste distribution control access heavy use areas water sources shade Farm Layout:  Farm Layout Pasture Subdivision more flexibility allows for rotational stocking more control of harvest requires appropriate fencing requires additional water sources Travel Lanes Farm Layout:  Farm Layout Water Sources Streams and Ponds stream crossings limited access ramps Pressurized water systems Gravity flow systems Ram pumps Solar pumps Water Quality:  Water Quality Cattle can adversely effect water quality sediment nutrients oxygen demand (BOD) pathogens bacteria viruses protozoans Water Quality:  Water Quality Potential groundwater impacts Heavy use areas Over application of nutrients/wastes Dramatically effected by soil type Herd Health Problems:  Herd Health Problems Spread of water borne diseases Bovine & human concern Bacteria (Brucellosis, Tuberculosis) Parasites (Cryptosporidium) Mastitis Foot Rot Leg injuries Off-Stream Water Sources for Grazing Cattle:  Off-Stream Water Sources for Grazing Cattle Why do cattle go to streams? Simplistic answer - To get water. Then... If we provide water away from the stream, will we reduce the amount of pollution caused by cattle? Can these “improvements” in water quality be made without fencing streambanks? Review of Research:  Review of Research Miner et al. (1994) observed hay-fed cattle 8 day-long observations in December 90% reduction in the time which cattle spent drinking from the stream when a water trough was made available Hypothesized subsequent reductions in fecal bacteria loading to stream Study Objectives:  Study Objectives Within pasture systems which do and do not utilize streams as the primary water source… Compare cattle behavior Estimate and compare stream bank erosion Estimate and compare stream nutrient and fecal bacteria concentrations Cattle Preference for Off-Stream Water Sources:  Cattle Preference for Off-Stream Water Sources % of Herd 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 5:30 9:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 Trough Stream Total Suspended Solids:  Total Suspended Solids Total Nitrogen:  Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus:  Total Phosphorus Fecal Coliform :  Fecal Coliform Fecal Streptococci:  Fecal Streptococci Slide33:  Pre-BMP: After 202 cows and 200 calves for 5 days; no trough - only water was the stream Slide34:  Post-BMP: After 150 cow & 150 calves for 4 days; cattle had access to both trough and stream Conclusions Cattle utilizing off-stream water sources, within rotational stocking systems, found to...:  Conclusions Cattle utilizing off-stream water sources, within rotational stocking systems, found to... Prefer to drink from water troughs 92% of the time compared to drinking from the stream Reduce streambank erosion rates by 77% Conclusions Presence of off-stream water sources, within rotational stocking systems, found to...:  Conclusions Presence of off-stream water sources, within rotational stocking systems, found to... Reduce concentrations of TSS and sediment-bound pollutants TSS (96%), TN ( 56%), NH4 (77%), N sed. (48%), TP (98%), P sed. (92%) Reduce concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci (51% & 77%) Water Requirements:  Water Requirements Gallons of water per head each day. Farm Pond Development:  Gravel Alley with Geotextile Fabric Alley width = 4’ ** Do not extend alley more than 2.5’into pond Farm Pond Development Allows cattle access to pond while minimizing their impact. Spring Developments:  Spring Developments Utilizes existing springs 24 hr flow Low maintenance Limited to site slope and topography Can support several troughs in series Nose Pumps:  Nose Pumps Works on animal power Satisfies 30-40 cows Can deliver water up to 300’ away from stream Can be used with quick-couple system for mobility Solar Pumps:  Solar Pumps Uses sunlight to pump water Can support large flows (gpd) Only works when sun is shining Used independent or in conjunction with other water systems Pond, Stream or Well Min. 3 days storage Ram Pumps:  Ram Pumps No power requirement Motorless Requires 3’ (min.) of stream fall Around the clock water at low flow rates Site-specific performance Ram Pumps - Design:  Ram Pumps - Design Sling Pumps:  Sling Pumps No rower requirement Performance is dependant on stream velocity, volume and depth Works in low slope areas - alternative to Ram Pumps Pressurized Water Systems:  Pressurized Water Systems May be more economical than alternative water systems Can be used with “quick-couples” to minimize cost and increase flexibility Installed underground or seasonal “above ground” Stream Bank Exclusions:  Stream Bank Exclusions May be necessary in places to protect water resources Heavy use areas Water use protection Riparian buffers establishment enhancement Can be established economically Slide47:  Do these heifers need to be here? Stream Bank Exclusions:  Stream Bank Exclusions Quick re-growth of stream bank vegetation Existing “seed bank” Bank stabilization Sediment capture Nutrient and pathogen treatment Stream Bank Buffers:  Stream Bank Buffers Nutrient and pathogen treatment capture adsorption degradation denitrification Waste Application Areas Heavy Use Areas Grazing Areas Vegetation Control in Buffers:  Vegetation Control in Buffers Mechanical harvest or control Chemical Control spot applications watch drift into water Short Duration Grazing Short-Duration Grazing:  Short-Duration Grazing Treat stream area as a pasture High intensity grazing 1/2 to 1 day duration Dry periods only Provide off-stream water source Cattle and Water Quality:  Cattle and Water Quality Water Degradation Water Development Importance of Streambank Protection Cattle Production and the Environment:  Cattle Production and the Environment Departments of Animal Science, Biological & Agricultural Engineering & Crop Science For more information, contact: Ron Sheffield, Bio & Ag Enginering, ron_sheffield@ncsu.edu Matt Poore, Animal Science, matt_poore@ncsu.edu Jim Green, Crop Science, jim_green@ncsu.edu

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