Published on March 9, 2014
Occupational Health Practices in casting & forging, including cleaning / smoothening / roughening by sand & shot blasting Dr. Vaibhav Chakurkar 1
Casting since about 4000 BC… Ancient Greece; bronze statue casting circa 450BC Iron works in early Europe, e.g. cast iron cannons from England circa 1543 2
[THE FIRST SCHEDULE] [See section 2(cb)] LIST OF INDUSTRIES INVOLVING, HAZARDOUS PROCESSES 1. Ferrous Metallurgical Industries Integrated Iron and Steel Ferrow-alloys Special Steels 2. Non-ferrous Metallurgical Industries Primary Metallurgical Industries, namely, zinc, lead. copper, manganese,and aluminium 3. Foundries (ferrous and non-ferrous) Castings and forgings including cleaning or smoothening /roughening by sand and shot blasting 3
Dangerous Operations Schedule XXVI • Operations in Foundry The melting and casting of ferrous and non-ferrous metals in moulds made of sand, loam, metal, moulding , or by die, casting (including pressure die-casting) centrifugal casting or continuous casting and any process incidental to such production 4
Casting Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. 5
Casting Methods • Sand Casting • Investment Casting • Die Casting High Temperature Alloy, Complex Geometry, Rough Surface Finish High Temperature Alloy, Complex Geometry, Moderately Smooth Surface Finish High Temperature Alloy, Moderate Geometry, Smooth Surface 6
Casting products 7
Forging is a process in which a metal is heated and placed in a die and a compressive force is applied Ironsmith's old practice New technologies 8
Stages in Open-Die Forging (a) forge hot billet to max diameter (b) “fuller: tool to mark step-locations (c) forge right side (d) reverse part, forge left side (e) finish (dimension control) 9
Stages in Closed-Die Forging 10
Gears Forged products Crank Shaft 11
What is blasting ? Dangerous Operations Schedule VIII • "Blasting" means cleaning, smoothing, roughening, or removing of any part of the surface of any article by the use as an abrasive of a jet of sand, metal shot, or grit or other material, propelled by a blast of compressed air or steam 12
Sand blasting Shot blasting takes compressed air as its power and shots the high speed abrasive sand stream to the surface of work piece. takes the centrifugal force of the high speed rotating disk to shot the steel shots to the work piece surface. 13
Used--for cleaning, smoothening and roughening of metal casts and forged parts Before and After Before and After 14
Potential Health Hazards in workers at foundries and forging (including blasting) industries Hazardous factor Effects - High ambient temp. surrounding the furnaces; - Contact with hot metal including indirect contact of Infra red radiation from hot metals ; Fatigue, Heat stress, Heat strain, Uncomfortness, Dehydration , Heat exhaustion , Reduced physical activity, Heat cataract -Noise including ‘impulse noise’ Hearing impairment , Difficulty in communication , Mental stress , Nervous fatigue, -Eye injuries glare caused by furnace; metal fumes and radiation ; Flying objects Eye irritation Foreign body penetration Injury to retina and damage to the lens leading to cataract 15
Potential Health Hazards in workers at foundries and forging (including blasting) industries Hazardous factor Effect -Inhalable agents (SPM ,RSPM, gases, vapors, dusts and fumes) as a result of Sand & shot blasting, moulding and knockouts, cupola etc * these acts as potential threat to health of population of surrounding areas -decreased lung functioning with impaired Lung Function Tests, -Silicosis, -Siderosis, -Vibrationwhole body & Hand transmitted d/t machinery -Raynaud’s phenomenon in those exposed to vibration; - can affect the perception of displays; - can affect the manipulation of controls Chemical Hazards d/t metal fumes, solvents, vapors - Acute & chronic metal poisoning - Skin damage , allergies Fuel, electricity used in furnaces -Fire and Explosions, -CO emissions -Electric shock and burns 16
Potential Health Hazards in workers at foundries and forging (including blasting) industries Hazardous factor Effect -Manual carrying and lifting of large, bulky and/or heavy objects ; - Repetitive work ; - Failures due to automation - Rules of ergonomics not followed -Fatigue -Slips, trips and falls -Musculoskeletal injuries - injuries to back, Upper and lower limbs 17
Hazards Following practices are likely to contribute further if not followed correctly - - Lack of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) training & Safety Audits Inadequate engineering controls (such as ventilation, insulation) and work practices ; Rules of ergonomics not followed ; Inadequate use of PPEs ; Lack of medical facilities to provide emergency first-aid and rescue facilities; Failure to conduct adequate medical surveillance programs 18
Environmental Issues - Carbon dioxide emissions, leading cause of air pollution and global warming ; - Toxic wastes from metals and metal oxides; - Wastes produced from procedures like sand preparation, moulding and knockout , cupola, etc… - Water pollution, - Noise pollution, - Exploitation of natural resources e.g. coal, sand, minerals & mineral oils 19
Control Measures • Active monitoring: - The ongoing activities should be directed to check the hazard identification, risk assessment, Safety Audits the appropriate preventive and protective measures, as well as the arrangements to implement the occupational safety and health (OSH) management system 20
Engineering Methods * Aimed to reduce hazards Environmental Technologies It includes making use of sophisticated technologies and processes to improve performance and efficiency of metal casting facilities through proper waste management, reduce foundry emissions, reuse of waste materials and environmental compliance. It includes use of latest technology for Waste Characterization Modeling Waste Utilization Waste Reduction Process Waste Reduction materials - Processes to reduce the amount of waste. - Substitution of less hazardous materials - Substitution of less toxic blasting materials - Automation of processes 21
Engineering Methods *Aimed to minimize exposure. • Use of technical measures such as (a) Enclosing the work area ; (b) Insulation of furnaces – (c) protective guarding of machinery ; (d) sound absorber covers ; (d) maintaining ventilation and air filtering equipment in operation to remove inhalable agents from the air; (e) maintaining a jet or stream of water or other liquid on the work surface ; (f) use of electrostatic precipitator/scrubbers (g) a method approved by a safety officer. (h) Regular cleaning activities 22
Engineering Methods *Aimed to minimize exposure. • Use of technical measures such as (i) Proper disposal of wastes (j) Practice good personal hygiene --- washable or disposable protective clothes at the worksite --- have shower & change into clean clothes before leaving the worksite (k) PPEs after use should be disposed of or shall remove all traces of silica dust and shall store the equipment in an airtight container. (l) safety regulations should be enforced to protect workers. (m) proper policy for disaster mitigation, preparedness and management 23
Engineering Methods *Aimed to minimize exposure - Post signs to warn workers about the hazard and to inform them about required protective equipment. 24
Proper training -Information about health effects 25
Proper training • Application of Ergonomic practices at work Before After 26
Proper training • Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) 27
Environmental Management System (EMS) • EMS can be defined as a set of processes, which enable a foundry to cut down its environmental impacts and improve its operational efficiency. • Organizations adopt EMS to take proactive steps to ensure environmental compliance while cutting costs, ensuring the participation of management in environmental decisionmaking, and improving internal and external communications. • EMS is designed on planning, doing, checking and acting model and results in continual improvement (KAIZEN) Some of the advantages of EMS are - Reduces operating costs - Enhances environmental performance and efficiency - Improves internal and external communication - Improves environmental decision-making - Enhances the image of organization 28
Medical Methods • Pre-placement & periodical medical examination by Certifying Surgeon that includes (a) A complete physical examination with special attention to the respiratory system; (b) Lung function tests including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at one second; (c) Screening tests e.g. X-Ray, Audiometry; (d) Reporting of all cases * First aid 29
Occupational Health Services • Detecting, Evaluating, and Treating Medical Conditions • Emergency Response with proper policy for disaster mitigation, preparedness and management • Medical Surveillance • Chronic Disease Management • Fitness and Wellness • Work-Life Management • Disability Management and Accommodation • Employee Assistance and Advocacy • Absence Management • Training • Consultant to Workers, Managers, Unions, and the Community 30
And finally with the integrated efforts with all available measures we must PLAN for 31
Future i.e. Backcasting is a process of starting from a vision of success, then looking back to today ... 32
Calcification Inhibitors in CKD and Dialysis Patients
... ' techniques such as casting, forging and machining. Additive manufacturing introduces new design possibilities, including ...
View 3638 Casting & Forging posts, presentations, experts, and more. Get the professional knowledge you need on LinkedIn.
Jsa #41- Sand Blasting. by arunvrajan2008. on Nov 16, 2014. Report Category: Documents. Download: 2 Comment: 0. 5,940. views. Comments. Description ...
Sand casting, also known as sand ... or shot blasting. During casting, ... In the first automatic horizontal flask lines the sand was shot or slung ...
Sand casting 11 Mei 2013 ... CASTING & FORGING including Sand blasting & Shot blasting ... Aluminum Profile Shot & Sand Blasting Machine, High 1.
> What is shot blasting? What is Shotblasting? ... Shot blasting is used in almost every industry that uses metal, including aerospace, automotive ...
A foundry is a factory that ... This frees the casting from the sand, ... bead blasting, and sand blasting. Shot peening may be used to further work ...
Shot Blasting: Shot Peening: Definition: Shot ... Blasting media includes sand; steel shot; ... Shot blasting can be used on castings, forgings, ...