Cash Management (Hindi)

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Published on February 20, 2014

Author: dearasthana

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This PPT in Hindi deals with different aspect of cash management, It is in Hindi.

uxnh izcU/kau Dr. A.K.Asthana Director, Institute of Cooperative Management Bhopal, India dearasthana@gmail.com 1

uxnh izcU/kau • uxnh fdlh Hkh O;olk; ds fy, pkyw ifjlaifr • bldh vko’;drk O;olk; ds fy, ges’kk iMrh gS • O;olk; esa ns;rk dks nsus ds fy, ges’kk uxnh j[kuh gksuh pkfg, vxj O;olk; esa uxnh deh gks rks O;olk; ds ij bldk cwjk vlj iMrk 2

• vksj vxj uxnh t#jr ls T;knk gks rks og Bhd ugha • A O;olk; esa e’khu ;fn vksj dPpk pkyw Js.kh dh ifjlEifr esa vkrs • ek=k esa o`f/n djus ls O;olk; vksj ykHk esa o`f/n gksrh gS 3

• uxnh ,sd ,slk ifjlEifRr g ftldh vf/kd ek=k esa gksus ls m/kksx esa ykHk ds ctk; uqdlku gksrk gSs • blfy, uxnh izcU/kau dk cgqr egRo gSs 4

• m/kksx vius ikl miyC/k uxnh dk izHkkoh <ax ls mi;ksx • rkfd mlds for laca/kh mn~ns’ksa dks iwjk fd;k tk lds • mn~ns’;ksa esa vf/kd ykHk dekuk vksj laifr dks c<kuk 'kkfey gksrk gS 5

• m/kskx esa uxnh dh lgh ek=k gkFk esa u gs rks vpkud fdlh vkikrdky ls fuiVus esa eqf’dy gksrh gS ftlds dkj.k m/kksx dh lk[k fxjrh gS A • ;fn Hkfo";dh pqukSrh dks /;ku esa j[kdj uxnh dk vk;kstu fd;k tk, vkSj mldk mi;skx u gks rks ,slh uxnh vuqi;ksxh iMh jgrh gS a blls laLFkk ds ykHk ij cqjk vlj iMrk gS 6

• blfy, uxnh izcU/kau bl <ax ls djuk pkfg, ftlesa pkyw vko’;drk dks iwjk fd;k tk lds lkFk gh Hkfo"; dh pquksfr;ksa dk Hkh lkeuk fd;k tk lds • uxnh izcU/ku dk eq[; y{; ,d ,slkh jde ds izcU/ku ls gS ftorZeku dh foRrh; t#jrksa dks iwjk djrs gq, Hkfo"; dh pquksfr;ksa dk lkeuk djus ds fy, mi;skxh <ax ls j[kk tk lds A 7

m|eo`fr dkS’ky (Entrepreneur skill) vksj udnh izc/ku • udnh ica/ku ,d izcU/kdh; dk;Z gS • udnh ica/ku esa vusd dk;Zdyki tqMs gq, gS tSls fd foRrh; L=ksrksa dk irk yxkuk ] udnh izca/ku dk irk yxkuk] _.k izcU/ku djuk --- uxnh ctV rS;kj djuk 8

• bu lHkh dkeksa ds lqpk# #i ls djus ds fy, izcU/kdh; dkS’ky ds lkFk m|e o`fRr dkS’ky dh vko’;drk gksrh gS rkfd dke izHkkoh <ax ls fd;k tk lds • uxnh izcU/ku ij m|e dkS’ky o`fRr ds chp laca/k dks ds Vscy esa fn[kk;k x;k gS A 9

udnh izc/ku ls lacf/kr lg;ksftr m|eo`fRr dkS’ky fdz;kdyki fuf/k ds llk/ku tqVkuk varoS;fDrd laca/k dkS’ky] lwpuk izkIr djus laca/kh dkS’ky ] laizs"k.k udnh vk;kstuk vk;kstuk dkS’ky udnh ctfVax fu.kZ; ysus ds dkS’ky] ys[kkdj.k dkS’ky udnh izcU/ku _.k vfHkfoU;kl izca/ku vfHkfoU;kl udnh ysu nsu Rkduhdh vkSj izpkyu dkS’ky bZ&varj.k bZ&Hkqxrku udnh lapkyu tksf[ke ysuk tksf[ke ysus dh ;ksX;rk Hkqxrku fuiVku varoS;fDrd laca/k dkS’ky okrkZ dkS’ky fuf/k ds varizZokg dk fu;=.k fuf/k izca/ku dkS’ky ] rduhdh dkS’ky 10

udnh izca/ku dh leL;k, • igys ppkZ fd;k tk pqdk gS fd udnh izcU/ku ,d pqukSfr Hkjk dke gS blesa vusdksa leL;k vkrh gS • lkekU;r% udnh izcU/ku esa fuEufyf[kr leL;k,W gksrh gSa % 11

• udnh ds Lrj dk fua;=.k A • udnh ds vUrizokZg ( Inflow Cash) dk fu;a=.k A • udnh ds cghizZokg ( Outflow Cash) dk fu;a=.kA • vfrfjDr udnh ( Surplus Cash) dk b"Vre fuos’k ( Prudent Investment) A 12

1- udnh ds Lrj dk fua;=.k % izR;sd m|ksx Hkfo"; dh vizR;k{kh nkf;Roksa dks /;ku esa j[krs ,d U;wure udnh j[kus dh dkSf’k’k djrk • ;g U;wure udnh fdruh gks blds fu/kkZj.k esa leL;k gksrh gS 13

  • • udnh ds Lrj ds fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, fuEu ckrksa dk /;ku j[kk tkrk • 1 izR;{khr folaxfr;kW% (Predictable Discrepancies) • m|ksx esa dqN folaxfr;kW izR;{kh gksrh gS • dkj.k le; ds nkSjku varizZokghr ,oa ckg~; izokfgr udnh ds dkj.k folaxfr;ksa 14
  • • bldh lapkyu ds fy, dS’k ctV ,d vPNk ek/;e gS • fdlh NksVs m|ksx esa dS’k ctV ,d NksVh izfdz;k gS • cMs m|ksx esa cMh varizokZgh vkSj cghizokZgh uxnh dks /ku esa j[krs gq, bls fdlh [kkl O;fDr dks ftEesnkjh ds rkSj ij lkSik tkrk gS 15
  • • ;g [kkl O;fDr dUV~zksy vkWQ Qk;usal vkQhlj vFkok phQ Qk;usal vkQhlj gks ldrk gS A • 2 vizR;f{kr foalxfr;kW % (UnPredictable Discrepancies) 16
  • • m|ksx esa vizR;kf{kr folaxfr;kW Hkh gksrh jgrh gS tSls fd gMrky ij tkuk ] cktkj dk fxj tkuk ] mRiknu esa mi;skx gksus okyh oLrqvksa dk Hkko c< tkuk A • bl rjg dh vizR;{kh folaxfr;ksa ds dkj.k m|ksx ij cqjk vlj iMrk gS 17
  • • varizZokgh ;k ckg~;izZokgh udnh ij rRRdky vlj imrk gS • bl rjg dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls fuiVus ds fy, j[kh gqbZ udnh ,d chek ds rjg dke djrh gS A • fn ,slh foalxfr;kW mRiUu gqbZ rks lqjf{kr udnh dk mi;skx gksrk gS vU;Fkk udnh iMh jgrh gS A 18
  • • blfy, vizR;{khr folaxfr;ksa ds fy, j[kh tkus okyh udnh ds fy, fo’ks"k /;ku nsuk pkfg, A 3 fuf/k ds +L=ksr % (Source of Cash) • udnh ds Lrj dks cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fofHkUu L=ksrksa ls fuf/k yh tkrh gS 19
  • • blds vUrxZr de le; esa /kujkf’k izkIr dh tkrh gS • dEiuh dh lk[k dk fo’ks"k egRo gksrk gS A • dEiuh dh lk[k ftruh vPNh gksxh mldk _.k izcU/ku ftruk vPNk gksxk mruh vklkuh vkSj tYnh ls de le; esa vPNh uxnh fey ldrh gS 20
  • • blls dEiuh dks de udnh gkFk esa j[kus dh vko’;drk gksrh gS A • de le; esa udnh izcU/ku ds fy, dEiuh viuh iwjkuh vkSj vfrfjDr e’khus ;k midj.ks Hkh csp dj fuf/k gkfly dj ldrh gS A 21
  • 4 cSadksa ds lkFk lEcU/k • udnh dk Lrj cuk;s j[kus ds fy, dEiuh dk cSadksa ds lkFk vPNk lEcU?k gksuk t#jh gS • cSadksa Onkjk udnh miyC/k djk;s tkus ls igys cSad dEiuh dh _.k O;oLFkk vkSj mldh lk[k ij fo’ks"k /;ku nsrh 22
  • • dEiuh dh _.k O;oLFkk ftruh vPNh gksxh cSad mls mruh lgwfy;r ls udnh miyC/k djkuk pkgsaxk • blds vykok cSadksa ds vf/kdkfj;ksa ls lkSgknziw.kZ okrkoj.k vkSj lEcU/k cuk;s j[kus ls udnh ds Lrj ds izcU/ku esa lgk;rk feyrh gS A 23
  • • cSadksa dh [qkn dh foRrh; fLFkfr ] muds 'kk[kk dh fLFkfr vkSj mudh ikfylh dk Hkh udnh ds Lrj ds izcU/ku ij vlj iMrk gS 24
  • • udnh ds varizZokg dk fu;a=.k % • laLFkk ds fy, varizZokgh udnh dk izcU/ku Hkh ,d eqf’dyska Hkjk dke gS • varizZokgh udnh tYn ls tYn laLFkk esa vkuk pkfg, • blds lkFk gh blesa fdlh rjg dk ?kksVkyk ;k tkylkth ugha gksuh pkfg, A 25
  • • tkylkth vkSj /kks[kk/kMh dh ?kVuk dks jksdus ds fy, laLFkk d vUnj vkus okyh udnh dks vusd Lrjksa ls ikl djk;k tkrk gs • vusd Lrj ij vyx vyx O;fDr bldk lapkyu djrs gSa A • fdlh Hkh Lrj ij ?kksVkyk gksus ij vxys Lrj ij bls blds idMs tkus dh cuh jgrh gS A 26
  • • varizZokgh udnh ds tYn ls tYn laLFkk esa vkus ds fy, nks rjg ds izfdz;k viuk;s tkrs gSa • 1 ykWWd ckDl iz.kkyh • ;g iz.kkyh udnh ds dysD’ku ds fy, cgqr izpfyr gs • blds vUrxZr dtZnkjksa ls tYnh ls tYnh udnh dk dysD’ku fd;k tkrk gS 27
  • • bl iz.kkyh esa dEiuh vusd cSadksa esa vius [kkrk [kksyrh gS tks fd vyx vyx txg ij gksrs gSa A • ykWd ckDl iksLV vkQhl esa ,d {ks=h; cSad dh rjg dke djrk gS A • dtZnkj viuh viuh jkf’k ykWd ckDl esa tek djk nsrs gsa 28
  • • ykWd ckDl iksLV vkQhl esa ,d {ks=h; cSad dh rjg dke djrk gS A • blesa tek fd;k pSd fnuHkj esa nks ls rhu ckj bdB~Bk fd;k tkrk gS vkSj cSadksa dks Hkst fn;k tkrk gS • cSad blds vk/kkj ij dEiuh ds [kkrs esa jkf’k Mky nsrh gS aA bl iz.kkyh esa pSdksa ds laxzg esa cgqr enn feyrh gS A 29
  • • {ks=h; 'kk[kk ds vf/kdkfj;ksa ds ek/;e lsa laxzg.k % • vxj fdlh dEiuh dk vyx vyx HkkSxksfyd {ks= esa ,d ls vf/kd 'kk[kk gksrh gS rks ,slh dEiuh viuh {ks=h; 'kk[kkvksa ds ek/;e ls vUrizZokfgr udnh ds Lrj dk lapkyu djrh gS 30
  • • dEiuh ds dtZnkj dEiuh dh {ks=h; 'kk[kk esa tkdj ,d vf/kd`r O;fDr dks pSd tek djk nsrk gS A • bl rjg vyx vyx {ks=h; dk;kZy; esa tek fd;k pSd eq[;ky; esa pyk tkrk gS A • dHkh dHkh udnh eq[;ky; esa Hkstus dh vko’;drk ugha gksrh gS A 31
  • • ;fn LFkuh; {ks= esa eq[;ky; dk dksbZ ns; curk gks rks eq[;ky; {ks=h; izcU/kd ml ns; dh pqdk;nh dk funsZ’k nsrk gS A • 3- udnh ds cghiZzokg dk fu;a=.k % • vUrizZokg ds rjg udnh dk cghizZokg Hkh vaR;r egRoiw.kZ gS 32
  • • udnh ds cghizZokg ds Lrj ij fu;a=.k j[kus ds fy, dEiuh dsUnzh;d`r Hkqxrku dh O;oLFkk • lHkh {ks=h; 'kk[kkvksa ls Hkqxkru dh tkus okyh fcyksa dk 'kk[kk ds Lrj ij bdB~Bk fd;k tkrk gS vksj ogka ls mldk Hkqxrku fd;k tkrk gS 33
  • • 4- vfrfjDr fuf/k dk b"Vre iz;ksx • vfrfjDr udnh dk b"Vre iz;ksx djus ds fy, foRr izcU/kd dks NqV nh tkrh g • foRr izcU/kd de le; esa bldk lgh mi;skx dj lds blds fy, mls fo’ks"k /;ku nsuk gksrk gS A 34
  • uxnh vk;kstu vksj uxnh fu;a=.k • fdlh Hkh laLFkk ds foÙkh; dkeksa esa uxnh dk vk;kstu vksj uxnh dk fu;a=.k izeq[k dke gSaA • foÙkh; izca/kd dh ftEesnkjh gS] fd lqplk: :i ls dke pykus ds fy;s uxnh fdlh Hkh le; miyC/k cuh jgsA 35
  • • uxnh dk vk;kstu dk vFkZ Hkfo"; esa uxnh dh t:jr dk iwokiuqeku djsaA • ;g dke varj izokgh uxnh vksj ckg~; izokgh uxnh ds vk;kstu ls gksrk gSA • uxnh fdlh Hkh laLFkk dh rjyrk crkrk gSA 36
  • • uxnh dk vk;kstu fuEufyf[kr rRoksa dslgk;rk ls dh tkrh gS%& • 1- dqy uxnh iwokZuqeku & • dqy uxnh iwokZuqeku var varj izokgh uxnh vksj ckg~; izokgh uxnh ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gSa A ;g fdlh Hkh le; ds fcUnq ij dqy uxnh dh fLFkfr crkrk gSA 37

    • 2- uxnh ctV • uxnh ctV uxnh vk;kstu dk nqljk ?kVd gSA . • uxnh ctV dh lgk;rk ls Hkfo"; esa uxnh dh vko';drk dk iwokZuqeku fd;k tkrk gSA 38

    • blds fy;s varj izokgh uxnh vksj ckg~; izokgh uxnh dh lgk;rk yh tkrh gSA • nksuks ds chp dk varj ;k rks vfrfjDr uxnh ;k rks uxnh dh deh dks crykrk gSA a foÙkh; izca/kd iwoZ rS;kjh esa twV deh dh fLFkfr esa mldh iwfrZ dh O;oLFkk djrk gSA bl rjg ,d uxnh ctV uxnh ds vk;kstu 39

    • 3- lexz dk;Z'khy iwath dk iwokZuqeku • lexz dk;Z'khy iwath dk iwokZuqeku ls uxnh dk vk;kstu fd;k tkrk gSA • ;g pkyw ifjlEifÙk vkSj pkyw ns; ls fd;k tkrk gSA 40

    • uxnh ij fu;a=.k • uxnh ds vk;kstu ds ckn uxnh dk fu;a=.k ,d egRoiw.kZ dke gSA • O;oLFkkiu esa vk;kstu vkSj fu;a=.k flDds ds nks igyw gSA 41

    • nksuks ,dhd`r dk;Z g • gSAtc vk;kstu fd;k tkrk gS tc fu;a=.k Hkh fd;k tkrk gSaA • uxnh ds fu;a=.k ds fy;s mi;qDr uxnh izca/ku uhfr cukbZ tkrh gSaA • i}fr viukbZ tkrh gS vkSj dk;Ziz.kkyh r; dh tkrh gSaA 42

    • uxnh fu;a=.k dk fu.kZ; ysrs le; ljdkj dh uhfr;ksa vkSj Hkfo"; dh vkdfLed ?kVukvksa I • uxnh dk fu;a=.k fuEufyf[kr dh lgk;rk ls fd;k tkrk gSa • 1- uxnh ctV fjiksVZ& • uxnh ctV fjiksVZ uxnh fu;a=.k dk ,d vPNk lk/ku gSA 43

    • uxnh ctV ds vykok mlds iwjd ds :i esa uxnh ctV fjiksVZ rS;kj dh tkrh gSA • 2- uxnh izokg fjiksVZ • uxnh izokg fjiksVZ varj izokgh uxnh vkSj ckg~; izokgh uxnh dh lgk;rk ls fd;k tkrk gSA 44

    • bl fjiksVZ ls fdlh Hkh le; uxnh dh fLFkfr dk irk pyrk gSA ftlds vuqlkj fu;a=.k fd;k tk ldrk gSaA vuqikr fo'ys"k.k • vuqikr fo'ys"k.k ls uxnh ds fu;a=.k esa enn feyrh gSA • ;g uxnh dh fLFkfr dk fo'ys"k.k dj vuqeku yxkus dk rjhdk gSA • 3- 45

    uxnh ctV • uxnh ctV dh lgk;rk ls Hkfo"; esa uxnh dh t:jr dk iwokZuqeku fd;k tkrk gSA • ;g varj izokgh uxnh vkSj ckg~; izokgh uxnh dh lgk;rk ls fd;k tkrk gSA • uxnh ctV y?kq dkyhu uxnh ctV vkSj nh?kZdkyhu uxnh ctV gks ldrk gSA 46

    • y?kq dkyhu uxnh ctV 6 ls 12 efgus ds fy;s rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA • bldk mn~ns'; izpkyu uxnh dk izko/kku fd;k tkuk gS lkFk gh y?kq dkyhu fuos'k ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysuk gSA 47

    • nh?kZ dkyhu uxnh ctV dk le; 1 lky ls T;knk dk gksrk gSA • bldk mn~ns'; nh?kZ dkyhu fuos'k ij fu.kZ; ysuk] ykHkka'k laca/kh fu.kZ; ysuk vkSj varj foHkkxh; ctV ij fu.kZ; ysuk gSA 48

    • uxnh ctV cukus ds fuEu Qk;ns gS%& 1- uxnh vk;kstu esa enn& 2- dk;Z dk ewY;kadu • uxnh ctV dh lgk;rk ls dk;Z dk ewY;kadu • okLro esa tks dk;Z lEiUu gqvk gSa vkSj tks izLrkfor dke gSA mldk rqyukRed ewY;kadu 49

    • blds ckn ewY;kadu ?kukRed jgk rks dgk tkrk gS fd dk;Z vPNh rjg ls lEiUu gqvkA • 3- ykHkka'k ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysuk& • uxnh ctV ls uxnh dh miyfC/k dk irk pyrk gSA • uxnh dh rjyrk ds vk/kkj ij ykHkka'k lacaf/kr fu.kZ; ysus esa lqfo/kk gksrh gSA 50

    • 4- uxnh O;; ij fu;a=.k • lHkh foHkkxksa ds ctV dk vk;kstu fd;k tkrk gSA • foHkkx ml ctV ls T;knk [kpZ ugha dj ldrkA • bl rjg uxnh ctV ls varj foHkkxh; uxnh [kpZ dks fu;af=r fd;k tkrk gSA 51

    • 5- fu/kkZfjr fd;s x;s izLrkfor foLrkj ds izHkkoksa dk ijh{k.k 52

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