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Published on October 4, 2007

Author: Woofer


Effects of Gluten Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution on the Noodle Making Potential of Hard White Wheats:  Effects of Gluten Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution on the Noodle Making Potential of Hard White Wheats Caryn Ong Bioresource Research (Biotechnology) Dr. Andrew Ross Dr. Jae Ohm Crop and Soil Science/Food Science and Technology, OSU The task:  The task Breeding of hard white wheat (HWW) varieties is targeted at developing wheats with both good breadmaking and good noodlemaking properties. The overall aim is to increase our knowledge about the optimum gluten protein composition to satisfy this dual-purpose requirement. Specific Objectives:  Specific Objectives Determine effect of individual protein components of gluten on the texture of Asian noodles Determine if gluten protein molecular weight distributions are predictive of noodle texture Compare abilities of gluten protein molecular weight distributions, presence of specific protein components of gluten and mixograph data to predict noodle texture. Justification:  Justification Around 600 million metric tons (mmt) of wheat produced worldwide annually (2002) Around 400 mmt used for human food Bread, pasta, noodle Wheat is most valuable cereal crop in Oregon We need to retain and expand export market share Asian noodle market is vital Justification:  Justification Asian Noodles:  Asian Noodles Asian noodles made up of: Flour from common wheat (Triticum aestivum) Water Table salt or Alkaline salts e.g. Sodium or potassium carbonates Alkaline noodles are yellower, often firmer and have unique flavor and aroma compared to just salted noodles Noodle quality traits :  Noodle quality traits Texture Firmness Optimum firmness is regional and type specific Springiness, elasticity, smoothness Color Brightness Yellowness / whiteness Factors that affect noodle texture::  Factors that affect noodle texture: Protein content higher protein content gives firmer noodles composition Starch starch composition amylose:amylopectin ratio Materials:  Materials 35 elite HWW breeding lines from OSU 2 replications at 2 sites Corvallis (Western Oregon) High rainfall, leaf disease pressure Arlington (Eastern Oregon) Low rainfall, deeper soils, drought stress Wheat proteins:  Wheat proteins Wheat endosperm proteins are made up of many component proteins 4 major categories of wheat protein based on solubility Glutenin Gliadin Albumin Globulin Within each category are many different individual proteins Slide11:  Separation of GLUTENIN into component proteins on SDS-PAGE Gluten:  Gluten - Gluten is made up of: primarily glutenins and gliadins (~80%) starch, lipid and fiber are minor components - Gluten is formed when water and mechanical energy (as mixing or sheeting) is added to the flour Gluten gives dough its visco-elasticity and provides texture to end products Glutenins:  Glutenins Storage proteins in endosperm exist as high and low MW types Functional proteins that provide the elastic component of dough visco-elasticity Gliadins contribute the viscous component Glutenin Genetics:  Glutenin Genetics Wheat is hexaploid and contains three related genomes: A, B, & D each with 7 pairs of chromosomes numbered 1-7 HMW-GS encoded at Glu-1 loci of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D Glu-1A, Glu-1B, Glu-1D Each locus has multiple alleles Alleles not genetically linked Any combinations possible Glutenin Genetics:  Glutenin Genetics Some combinations of HMW-GS are associated with stronger dough and better breadmaking quality Specific sub-unit effects in noodles not known Glutenin Nomenclature:  Glutenin Nomenclature Numbering system developed by Payne and Lawrence Assigned relative to SDS mobility 1 2 2* 5 12 Key Techniques:  Key Techniques SDS PAGE identify high molecular weight glutenin subunits Size Exclusion HPLC Determine molecular weight distribution Protein Content Quantity analysis Mixograph recording dough mixer Noodle Textural Analysis Physical parameters Result:  Result Moro Cajeme 71 SDS PAGE of HMW-GS Result:  Result Result:  Result Result:  Result Result:  Result Result:  Result Conclusion:  Conclusion Effects of HMW-GS composition on dough mixing properties similar to available literature Flour protein content has dominant affects on cooked noodle hardness Contributions of HMW-GS masked by flour protein content Future Developments:  Future Developments Rapid Visco Analyzer Characterization of starch pasting properties Need to account for starch pasting properties on cooked noodle texture before reaching a final conclusion based on collected data Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements HHMI Oregon Wheat Commission Dr. Andrew Ross Dr. Jae B. Ohm Dr. Kevin Ahern

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