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Published on November 1, 2007

Author: Chyou

Source: authorstream.com

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INHABITANTS PERCEPTIONS, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS TOWARD URBAN GREEN AREAS:  INHABITANTS PERCEPTIONS, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS TOWARD URBAN GREEN AREAS Environmental Psychology Research Group University of Rome “La Sapienza” Department of Social and Developmental Psychology Mirilia Bonnes, Marino Bonaiuto, Giuseppe Carrus, Ferdinando Fornara, Antonio Aiello Development of an Integrated European Research Programme on the Urban and Peri-Urban Environment ESF/URGENT/Euro-MAB/UK-Urban Forum Workshop University of Birmingham, UK, 11th-13th April 2002 Slide2:  THE UNESCO PROGRAM on MAN and BIOPSPHERE (MAB) Launched by the Division of Ecological Sciences of UNESCO in the early ‘70 as a program of ‘applied research’ on people-environment interaction providing scientific knowledge for ecosystem management supporting decision making in the environmental domain fostering integration among different disciplinary fields integrating the traditional concept of ecosystem with the innovative concept of Human Use System, composed by three basic dimension of space, time and human perceptions AIMS TRENDS IN ECOLOGICAL SCIENCES FROM A SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE: FROM ‘PARTIAL’ TO ‘FULL’ ECOLOGY (cf. Bonnes & Bonaiuto, 2002):  TRENDS IN ECOLOGICAL SCIENCES FROM A SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE: FROM ‘PARTIAL’ TO ‘FULL’ ECOLOGY (cf. Bonnes & Bonaiuto, 2002) Ecology has gradually moved from strict physical-biological natural science paradigms towards social science and human- based paradigms Increased attention for the “human dimension” (in the perceptual-behavioural sense) of environmental processes and changes (cf. Pawlik, 1991; Stern, 1992) Awareness that environmental processes and changes must be approached considering both the physical-biological and human dimension at a local and global level Slide4:  HUMAN-DIMENSION DOMAIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL SCIENCES - Environmental Anthropology - Ecological Economics - Environmental Philosophy - Green Justice - Environmental Sociology - Environmental Psychology HUMAN DIMENSION OF BIODIVERSITY - Natural biodiversity - Human-perceptual/cultural biodiversity:  HUMAN DIMENSION OF BIODIVERSITY - Natural biodiversity - Human-perceptual/cultural biodiversity Partial ecology focused biodiversity of non-human species: human activities as a threat to biodiversity In a full ecological perspective human-social processes (considered in a perceptual-behavioural sense) are treated as a constitutive part of every ecosystem: human activities as a both a potential threat and/or source of biodiversity The 2001 Unesco-Columbia University Conference on Biodiversity and Society stressed this second approach: economic, social, cultural, and political perspectives for biodiversity conservation and management Slide6:  ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Studying the relationship of human cognition, affect and behaviours with the physical and social environment (cf. Bonnes & Secchiaroli, 1995; Bechtel & Churchmann, 2002) Individual, group, and societal processes regulating perceptions, values, worldviews, attitudes and behaviours relevant for the environment The role of the socio-physical context in shaping human psychological processes and interaction. Stressing the place-specific and multi-place character of people-environment relations. Slide7:  THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIENCE OF PLACES (cf. Camter, 1977; Russel & Ward, 1982; Bonnes & Secchiaroli, 1995; Bonnes & Bonaiuto, 1996) 1) Physical characteristics of places 2) People’s perceptions/cognitions of places 3) People’s actions/uses in places Place Slide8:  PEOPLE AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT (cf. Knopf, 1987; Hartig & Evans, 1991) Environmental psychological research have widely documented a positive effect of the individual experience of nature - preference for natural scenes (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) - development of individual and shared environmental concern (Fransson & Garling, 1999) - restorative/healthy effects of exposure to nature (Hartig, Mang & Evans, 1991; Ulrich, 1968) Slide9:  The social psychological research lines within the Mab-Rome project Three main issues concerning residents perception of the urban environment 1 Resident’s perceptions of nature in the city and resident’s attitudes and behaviours towards urban green areas 2 Assessing residential satisfaction through the development of Perceived Residential Environmental Quality Indicators (PREQI) 3 Comparing expert’s and layperson’s evaluations of urban environmental quality Multi-disciplinary collaboration with other research groups: natural ecologists (plant and animal biology), architects, urban planners etc. Slide10:  Perception, attitudes and behaviours toward urban green areas (cf. Bonnes, Aiello & Ardone, 1995; Bonnes, Aiello & Bonaiuto, 1999) - Nature in the city can assume a variety of meanings for urban inhabitants: physical, behavioural, social-interpersonal and symbolic - Individual and group differences in attitudes and behaviours toward urban green: people take different positions of integration/participation or rather of confinement/extraneousness vis-à-vis their urban natural environment - Nature in the city may have ambivalent meanings for urban dwellers: source of both positive and negative experiences. Two distinct dimension composing residents attitudes toward urban green: a “nature-integration” perspective a “nature-opposition” perspective Slide11:  Residential satisfaction and Perceived Residential Environmental Quality Indicators (cf. Bonaiuto et al., 1999; Bonaiuto & Bonnes, 2002) Inhabitants’ satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the urban residential environment have a multidimensional character Residents’ satisfaction/dissatisfaction is affected both by physical characteristics of the places (e.g. density), as well as by contextual factors (e.g. facilities, security, neighbourhood attachment) Development of standard subjective indicators of perceived residential environmental quality (PREQ), which can be reliably measured, covering all main features of the residential environment The presence of green areas in the neighbourhood is a significant positive predictor of people’s residential satisfaction and neighbourhood attachment Slide12:  Expert and layperson evaluations of urban environmental quality (cf. Bonnes & Bonaiuto 1995) The congruence between inhabitants’ and experts’ evaluations of the “quality” of built and natural residential urban environment is generally weak. For the low-quality built features of the environment, the congruence is generally stronger. Congruence is lower in the case of medium- or high-quality ranking For the natural features of the environment congruence is weak. Natural scientists assign particular value to the bio-physical naturalness of urban green while inhabitants assign particular value to its stability in time and accessibility Slide13:  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS inhabitants perceptions of the urban environment have recurrent organisations which are often weakly related with technical and objective indicators inhabitants environmental perceptions can be reliably and validly measured through standard paper-and-pencil tools covering different features of people-environment relations inhabitants environmental perceptions are systematically linked to activities, social-demographic and residential variables which characterise different individuals and social groups these constructs and findings can offer useful support, within a multi-disciplinary collaboration context, for urban planners and managers Slide14:  Mean nature-integration attitudes as a function of the amount of green areas in the neighbourhood and location of the neighbourhood with respect to Rome Biological Corridors Factorial ANOVA Main effects amount: F (1, 479) .25; p = n.s. position: F (1, 479) .15; p = n.s. 2-way Interaction amount*position: (1, 479) 5.76; p < .02 Standard deviations are reported in brackets. Mean scores range between 1 = completely negative attitudes and 3 = completely positive attitudes. BC = Biological Corridors Slide15:  Mean satisfaction for neighbourhood's green areas as a function of the amount of green areas in the neighbourhood and location of the neighbourhood with respect to Rome Biological Corridors Factorial ANOVA Main effects amount: F (1, 479) 50. 5; p <.001 position: F (1, 479) 2.3; p = n.s. 2-way Interaction amount*position: (1, 479) 6.99; p < .01 Standard deviations are reported in brackets. Mean scores range between 1 = extremely low satisfaction and 3 = extremely high satisfaction. BC = Biological Corridors

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