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Information about cardiomyopathy

Published on March 2, 2008

Author: ksbarot


Cardiomyopathy:  Cardiomyopathy Definition:  Definition Disorders of the cardiac muscle of unknown aetiology Specific types:  Specific types Infective/viral Metabolic/infiltrative (cardiac amyloidosis) Systemic/multistystem disease Familial neuro-muscular disorders eg muscular dystrophy Sensitivity or toxic reactions eg. Alcohol (dilated) and chemotherapy Infective :  Infective Viral eg. Coxackie virus (dilated) Tuberculosis (restrictive) HIV/AIDS ( dilated) Chagas disease (restrictive) - South America hypereosinophilic syndrome - could be parasitic, mostly unknown (restrictive - iron deposits) Metabolicdiseases:  Metabolic diseases Primary cardiac amyloidosis - restrictive (protein deposits) cardiac sarcoidosis - cardiac granulomas hemochromatosis Classification:  Classification Hypertrophic HCM HOCM Obliterative Dilated (Congestive) Restrictive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:  Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:  Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Pathological changes are of muscular hypertrophy associated with fibrosis Muscle fibres hypertrophy Myocardial disarray - some parts of the heart coronary arteries tendancy - large calibre Myocardial Disarray:  Myocardial Disarray Normal Muscle Structure Myocardial Disarray (Parallel alignment) (Disorganised alignment) Types Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy:  Types Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy HCM or HOCM Asymmetric septal (ASH) - without obstruction Asymmetric septal (ASH) - with obstruction Symmetric hypertrophy - concentric Apical hypertrophy HCM:  HCM Mitral Valve in normal position HOCM:  HOCM Mitral valve presses against septum MR SYMMETRIC:  SYMMETRIC symmetric or concentric APICAL:  APICAL Small cavity remains Apical Hypertrophy Symptoms:  Symptoms Dyspnoea angina palpitation dizzy spells syncope Slide16:  Gene is present from birth linked to growth hormone Myopathy can develop at any age - mostly under age 25, but not always diagnosis at early age increases risk of poor prognosis Prognosis:  Prognosis Adults - 2-3% SCD per year Adolescents - 4-6% SCD per year Infants (less than 1 yr old), mortality = 50% Identification of patients at risk:  Identification of patients at risk Diagnosis in childhood/adolescence Family history of HCM or SCD Syncope Mechanism of death:  Mechanism of death Mostly unknown ?VT or VF AF with fast ventricular response Any arrhythmia or increased obstruction causing Haemodynamic compromise Dilated Cardiomyopathy:  Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy:  Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated left ventricle poorly contracting little difference between systole and diastole low cardiac output Slide22:  Difficult to distinguish between dilated cardiomyopathy & dilated left ventricle due to severe CAD Usually post MI/CAD - local dysfunction Dilated myopathy - global dysfunction Right ventricular dilatation:  Right ventricular dilatation Uhl’s disease RV dysplasia or myopathy congenital associated ventricular arrhythmias Restrictive Cardiomyopathy:  Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive Cardiomyopathy:  Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Idiopathic Infiltrative eg – amyloidosis,sarcoidosis, mucopolysacharidosis, malignancies or Radiation Glycogen storage disease Hemochromatosis Fabrys disease Cardiac transplant rejection Characteristics:  Characteristics Abnormal compliance of the left ventricle short relaxation time Dilated atria with normal ventricular dimensions. Summary :  Summary various types diagnosis ECHO BLOOD TESTS LINK TO MEDICAL CONDITIONS Classification difficult discrepancies between countries (terminology & nomenclature)

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