cardiac output

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Information about cardiac output
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Published on January 28, 2009

Author: hewletja

Source: authorstream.com

Cardiac Output : Cardiac Output The Amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute. CO(ml/min) = HR (beats/min) X SV (ml/beat) CO = cardiac output HR = heart rate SV = stroke volume (volume/beat) Average adult CO : Average adult CO Using average values HR = 75 beats/min SV = 70 ml/beat CO = 75 x 70 = 5250 ml/min What is total blood volume? 5 liters The entire blood volume passes through each side of the heart in less than 1 minute How can CO change? : How can CO change? Any change in SV or HR will cause a change in CO For example Injection of several units of IV fluid increases blood volume With more blood going back to the heart, preload (stretch) is greater and heart contracts harder When heart contracts harder, SV goes up Changes due to SV : Changes due to SV sv changes Degree of stretch (preload) - to a point, stretched fibers contract harder (more SV) Contractility - epinephrine (sympathetic NS) leads to more Ca+2 release to fibers = harder contraction Afterload - high blood pressure in aorta and Pulmonary trunk puts back pressure on ventricles to reduce SV CO changes due to HR : CO changes due to HR Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic (decrease HR) Sympathetic (increase HR) Chemical regulation Hormones (ex. Epinephrine) Ions (Na+ K+ Ca+2) - ex. Potassium hyperpolarizes heart muscle fibers (further from threshold) CO and Blood Pressuresystolic/diastolic (120/80) : CO and Blood Pressuresystolic/diastolic (120/80) Pressure in the system is based on the rate that fluid enters the system (CO) and the amount of resistance that fluid encounters (PR): PRESSURE = CO x PR Slide 7: Blood pressure control Short term controls Immediate effects are usually seen in vascular tone (PR) and Cardiac Output Long term controls Most effects of this type involve changes in blood volume

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