Carbon Finance Risk Management Workshop

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Information about Carbon Finance Risk Management Workshop
Business-Finance

Published on July 9, 2007

Author: Saxophone

Source: authorstream.com

Growing risk aversion in emerging markets and the need for risk mitigation:  Growing risk aversion in emerging markets and the need for risk mitigation Workshop on Tools for Risk Mitigation in Small-scale Clean Infrastructure Projects November 19, 2003 Infrastructure Financing Slide2:  Drop in private financing of infrastructure is affecting all developing countries… … in all sectors:  … in all sectors Source: PPI Database, World Bank Risk aversion in the market has increased…:  Risk aversion in the market has increased… Environment for financing emerging market private infrastructure has become increasingly challenging 9/11 Corporate Bankruptcies Argentina crisis Unstable global political situation Reduced availability of private Political Risk Insurance Reduced number of strategic investors Reconsideration of portfolios in emerging markets Global economic conditions are dampening appetite and capacity:  Global economic conditions are dampening appetite and capacity Banks capital has eroded Credit decline widespread both in developed and in emerging markets Increasing number of ratings downgrades Infrastructure debt rating in Latin America dropped into default Collapse of tenors and favorable lending terms Limited private sector interest in infrastructure projects Signs of investors withdrawal - stalled projects, failed privatizations:  Signs of investors withdrawal - stalled projects, failed privatizations Average number of bidders power projects: 4 in 1998 down to 2 (LAC) Failures of power privatizations: Senegal, Georgia, Mauritania, Ukraine, PNG, Ecuador Failures of privatizations in other sectors Telecom in Czech Republic, airport in Algeria Slide7:  Enron Energy BBB+/Stable D NRG Energy Inc. Energy BBB-/Stable D Reliant Energy Power. Energy BBB+/Stable B/Neg. Endesa Energy A+/Neg. A/Neg. CMS Energy Energy BB/Stable BB/Neg. ABB Energy AA+/Neg. BB+/Positive AES Corp. Energy BB/Positive B+/Neg. Cogentrix Energy Corp Energy BB+/Stable BB/Watch Neg. Edison Mission Energy Energy BBB-/Stable B/Watch Neg. El Paso Corp. Gas BBB+/Stable B+/Neg. Millcom International Telecom B+/Stable D Developer Sector Sandamp;P Rating Sandamp;P Rating August 2001 November 2003 Many investors involved in emerging countries have been downgraded Project debt ratings downgrades increased in 2003:  Project debt ratings downgrades increased in 2003 Source: Standard andamp; Poor’s US utilities worse than before…:  US utilities worse than before… Source: Standard andamp; Poor’s Corporate Water companies investing in emerging countries are severely penalized…:  Corporate Water companies investing in emerging countries are severely penalized… While emerging market sovereign debt issuance has increased…:  While emerging market sovereign debt issuance has increased… 0 Mutual Fund Flows (4 - week moving average) Mutual Fund Flows (4 - week moving average) EMBIG versus High Yield Spread Evolution (bps) Total Returns (%) Total Returns (%) Source -JPMorgan … and emerging market spreads are declining…:  … and emerging market spreads are declining… Equity indexes are recovering…:  Equity indexes are recovering… Emerging trend in the global market is that…:  Emerging trend in the global market is that… Credit to projects declining while sovereign debt increasing Traditional investor appetite/capacity has changed significantly and for the worse Political, regulatory, and project risk matters more than ever The supply of 'easily' bankable projects is diminishing … new approaches to project finance, risk mitigation and International Financial Institution support are needed Slide15:  Which conditions are important? Legal Protection of Investors' Rights Minor 2.98 2.91 2.83 2.83 2.68 2.66 2.49 2.43 2.00 3.57 3.11 3.11 Major Critical 'Deal-breaker' 63% 36% 40% 13% 15% 19% 19% 8% 10% 4% 4% 13% Rated 'Dealbreaker' Slide16:  Legal protection and framework defining investor rights 63% of firms rated it a 'deal-breaker' 'Contract enforceability' 'Clarity in market rules' [Brazil , Guatemala ] 'Protection ‘to do business’ – labor laws, property rights; laws that work' 'Enforceable exit strategy' Payment discipline and enforcement 36% of firms rated it a 'deal-breaker' Both generation and distribution investors considered it important 'We cannot fix it on our own' – government support essential 'Worsening payment discipline – strong negative' Guarantee from Government or Multilateral 40% of firms rated it a 'deal-breaker' 'Support needed till the business becomes commercial' 'Why should we take on the risk of a bankrupt business?' Interestingly not a determinant for success – mitigation is not an incentive for default or mismanagement by government or sponsor Top three concerns affecting investment Slide17:  Source: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Source: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Financing required for the Power Sector in Emerging Markets 1990 - 2020 Private capital can be attracted even to the least developed countries…:  Private capital can be attracted even to the least developed countries… With risk mitigation through… PRI Bilateral institutions e.g. ECAs Multilateral Risk mitigation instruments can reduce risks that would discourage or otherwise make borrowing for/or investing in developing countries’ projects unfeasible by… Enhancing credit worthiness Improving lending terms Encouraging risk sharing Providing additional leverage with the government World Bank Guarantees can help…:  World Bank Guarantees can help… Risk mitigation for Government performance No cover for commercial risk Specificities: IBRD/IDA balance sheet Counterguarantee Cross defaults Two types of guarantees: Partial risk guarantees Partial credit guarantees Help to catalyze debt with extended maturities and lower financing costs Partial risk guarantees help access private finance at sustainable terms:  Partial risk guarantees help access private finance at sustainable terms Debt Maturity Interest Spread with Guarantee without Guarantee Cote d’Ivoire (P. Risk) 1 12 3% 2.75% Uganda (P. Risk) 0 16 3.1% 8% 1 Bangladesh (P. Risk) 3% 2% 14 Each dollar of guarantee catalyzes close to 5 dollars of private finance:  Each dollar of guarantee catalyzes close to 5 dollars of private finance For further information contact::  Private Participation and Finance Department The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 (USA) or visit our web site: www.worldbank.org/guarantees For further information contact: Mr. Suman Babbar Acting Director Ph: +1 (202) 473-2029 Fax: +1 (202) 522-0761 Email: Sbabbar@worldbank.org

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