Published on March 11, 2014
Biochemistry Dr Mohamed Mostafa Omran Faculty of Sciences, Helwan University
Introduction to Biochemistry
Biochemistry • Chemistry of living organisms. • Each second/ 8,000 trillion reactions in our bodies
Biomolecules • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids • Enzymes • Nucleic acid • Vitamins
Carbohydrates • Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. • Sugars • Monosaccharides – Ex. Glucose • Disaccharides – Ex. Sucrose • Polysaccharides – Ex. Cellulose, Starch, amylopectin, Glycogen, Chitin
Proteins • Made up of polymers of amino acids. • 20 primary amino acids exist. • A polymer of 3 or more amino acids forms a polypeptide.
Proteins • Primary Structure – Linear sequence of amino acids. • Secondary Structure – Form helices or sheets due to their structure. • Tertiary Structure – A folded protein. • Quaternary Structure – 2 or more polypeptide chains bonded together.
Lipids • Fatty Acids – The building blocks of lipids.
Lipids • Examples are: – Waxes – Fats and oils – Phospholipids – Steroids Phospholipid Cell Membrane. www.williamsclass.com
Enzymes • Are proteins. • Are considered biological catalysts. – Speed up a chemical reaction without being altered. • Names often end in “- ase.” – Ex. Lipase, carbohydrase. • Act on a substrate. • Proteins, including enzymes, can be denatured.
Nucleic Acids • DNA and RNA. – (DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, – (RNA - ribonucleic acid). • Is the “hereditary molecule.” • Contains genes that code for a certain product. • DNA is translated into RNA which is used to produce a protein or other product.
Nucleic Acid Structure • DNA nucleotides – Building blocks of DNA. • RNA nucleotides – Building blocks of RNA.
Nucleic Acid Structure
Nitrogenous Bases • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T) – only DNA • Uracil (U) – only RNA DNA and RNA
Nitrogenous Bases • A and G – Purines (double- ring structures) • C, T, and U – Pyrimidines (single-ring structures) hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu
Vitamins Vitamins water -soluble lipid-soluble Vit C Vit B A, D, E, K B1, B2, B6, B12, PP, patothenic acid， folic acid,biotin ,lipoic acid
The term carbohydrate is derived from the French term : hydrate de carbone Compounds composed of C, H, and O Empirical formula (CH2O)n when n = 5 then C5H10O5 Not all carbohydrates have this empirical formula: e.g. deoxysugars, amino sugars etc Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds found in nature (cellulose: 100 billion tons annually). CARBOHYDRATES
A - Methods of Classification: 1-One method of classification is based on whether the carbohydrate can be broken down into smaller units. Monosaccharides: simple sugars cannot be broken down into smaller units by hydrolysis. 1. Disaccharides: can be broken down into two monosaccharide units. 2. Oligosaccharides: can be broken into three to six monosaccharide units. 3. Polysaccharides: composed of 7 or more monosaccharide units.
Carbohydrates Classification 2-Another method is based on the number of carbons found in a simple sugar. If it has 3 carbons it is called a triose. If it has 4 carbons it is called a tetrose. If it has 5 carbons it is called a pentose. If it has 6 carbons it is called a hexose.
HC O C C CH2OH OH OH H H erythrose C C C CH2OH C CH2OH O H H H HO OH OH fructose 3-Another method uses the kind of carbonyl group. A- Aldose: A monosaccharide with an aldehyde group. B- Ketose: A monosaccharide with a ketone group. Carbohydrates Classification
Stereoconfigurations of simple sugars -Asymmetric carbon atom: It Is the carbon atom that is attached to 4 different groups. - All monosaccharides have it except dihydroxyacetone. - Different isomers are possible based on the presence of number of asymmetric carbon atoms
Optical Isomerism The presence of asymmetric carbon atoms also confers optical activity on the compound. When a beam of plane-polarized light is passed through a solution of an optical isomer, it rotates either to the right, dextrorotatory (+), or to the left, levorotatory (–). • Isomerism in Monosaccharides
Carbohydrate Anomers Anomers are carbohydrates that differ by the stereo-configuration of the carbon involved in ring formation. The α anomer always has the OH group oriented in a downward fashion on the anomeric carbon of a D-sugar. β anomer always has the OH group oriented in an upward fashion on the anomeric carbon of a D-sugar.
Important Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: composed of three to seven carbon atoms. 1- Glucose: The most abundant hexose in our diet. •The building block of complex carbohydrates. •Component of the disaccharides: sucrose, maltose and lactose. •Found in the polysaccharides: starch, cellulose and glycogen.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) Clinical correlate: Diabetes mellitus (DM) in which a person has high blood glucose level. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus. 1. Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin. 2. Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin. 3. Gestational diabetes
Glucose determination using urine dipstick • The dipstick has the enzyme glucose oxidase on its surface – this oxidises the glucose into hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid. • The hydrogen peroxide will oxidise an indicator chemical on the dipstick, which changes color. • The exact color change is related to the concentration of glucose in the urine sample. • The color can be compared with a color chart to give a reading for the glucose concentration.
• Fasting and postprandial or random blood sugar • Glycated hemoglobin: It is formed in a non- enzymatic pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. • In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels. Blood Glucose determination
Galactose • Galactose is the C-4 epimer of glucose. • Found in the disaccharide, lactose. C C C C CHO OH H OH HO H H HO H CH2OH H,OH O H H OH CH2OH H OH HO H Clinical correlate: Galactose is a component of the antigens present on blood cells that determine blood type within the ABO blood group system. In O and A antigens, there are two monomers of galactose on the antigens, whereas in the B antigens there are three monomers of glucose.
Fructose Fructose is a keto sugar. Fructose is sweetest of the carbohydrates (Fructose is regarded as being 1.73 times as sweet as sucrose). Fructose is the energy source for sperm motility
1-Amino sugars: They are formed by replacing the hydroxyl group (at C2 usually) of monosaccharides by amino group. Important derivatives of monosaccharides
-Are formed by removal of an oxygen atom usually from 2 nd carbon atom -one quite ubiquitous deoxy sugar is 2’-deoxy ribose which is the sugar found in DNA 2-Deoxy sugars
Sugar acids are formed by the oxidation of aldehyde C1 (Aldonic acid) or terminal hydroxyl group at C6 of aldose sugar (uronic acid) -or both (saccharic) to form carboxylic group. -L-ascorbic acid(vitamin C) is a sugar acid. Note: Glucuronic acid is involved in detoxification of bilirubin and other foreign compounds. 3-Sugar acids
Are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone ) of monosaccharide 4-Sugar alcohols
- Hydroxyl groups of sugars can be esterified to form Acetates, phosphates, benzoates etc. -Sugars are phosphorylated at terminal C1 hydroxyl group or at other places . At terminal hydroxyl: Glucose-6-P or ribose-5-P. At C1 hydroxyl group: Glucose-1-P . At both places: Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate - Metabolism of sugars inside the cells starts with phosphorylation. -Sugar phosphates are also components of nucleosides and nucleotides. 5-Sugar Esters
They are formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group of anomeric carbon with the hydroxyl group of any other molecule with the elimination of water. A glycosidic bond is formed. 6-Glycosides
1. Osazone formation 2. Reduction 3. Oxidation 4. Action of alkali 5. Action of acid 6. Glycoside formation 7. Ester formation Reactions of monosaccharides
-Used for the identification of sugars -Consists of reacting the monosaccharide with phenyl hydrazine -A crystalline compound with a sharp melting point and a characteristic shape is obtained D-fructose and D-mannose give the same needle shaped osazone crsytals as D-glucose -Seldom used these days for identification -HPLC or mass spectrometry is used now a days for the identification of sugars Formation of osazones
Formation of osazones
Aldoses may be oxidized to 3 types of acids 1. Aldonic acids: aldehyde group is converted to a carboxyl group e.g. Glucose --- Gluconic acid 2. Uronic acids: aldehyde is left intact and primary alcohol at the other end is oxidized to COOH e.g. Glucose --- Glucuronic acid 3) Saccharic acids: (glycaric acids) – oxidation at both ends of monosaccharide) e.g. Glucose ---- Gluco saccharic acid Oxidation reactions
-Either done catalytically (hydrogen and a catalyst) or enzymatically -The resultant product is a polyol or sugar alcohol -Glucose forms sorbitol (glucitol) -Mannose forms mannitol -Fructose forms a mixture of mannitol and sorbitol -Glyceraldehyde forms glycerol Reduction
-Monosaccharides are normally stable to dilute acids, but are dehydrated by strong acids -D-ribose when heated with concentrated HCl yields furfural -D-glucose under the same conditions yields 5-hydroxymethyl furfural - Forms the basis of Molisch test, Seliwanoff test and Bial’s Test Action of strong acids on monosaccharides
-In mild alkaline conditions Enediols are formed - Enediols are highly reactive sugars and are powerful reducing agents. -This allows the interconversion of D-mannose, D-fructose and D-glucose - Strong alkalis cause Decomposition of sugars. Action of Alkalies on sugars
Important Carbohydrates Disaccharides* composed of 2 monosaccharide units. 1. Maltose - malt sugar. • Used in cereals, candies and the brewing of beverages. • Composed of two D-glucose sugars joined by an α- 1,4 linkage. O OHH H HH H O H OHOH H H OH OH OH OH CH2OH CH2OH H
Important Carbohydrates Disaccharides* composed of 2 monosaccharide units. 2. Lactose - milk sugar. • Found in milk and milk products. • Composed of one galactose and one glucose unit joined by a β-1,4 linkage. OH H H OH H OH OH CH2OH H O CH2OH OH HOH H H OH H O
Important Carbohydrates Disaccharides* composed of 2 monosaccharide units. 3. Sucrose - table sugar. • Product of sugar cane and sugar beets. • Composed of one glucose and one fructose unit. • Linkage is at both anomeric carbons. O O OH H OH H H O H H H OH H HOH CH2OHOH CH2OH CH2OH
Important Carbohydrates Polysaccharides* composed of many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. • 1- Cellulose: • Major structural material of plant cells. • Consists of many glucose units joined by β-1,4 linkages.
Important Carbohydrates Polysaccharides* composed of many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. 2. Starch: • Storage form of glucose found in rice wheat, potatoes, grains and cereals. • Consists of many glucose units joined by α-1,4 linkages. • Maltose is the disaccharide starting material.
Important Carbohydrates Polysaccharides* composed of many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. 3. Glycogen: • Animal starch. Storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscle of animals. • Contains many highly branched glucose units. • Joined by α-1,4 linkages and branched by α-1,6 linkages.
Important Carbohydrates Polysaccharides* composed of many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. 4. Dextrin: • Mixture of branched and un-branched soluble polysaccharides produced by partial hydrolysis of starch by acids or amylases.
Reducing sugars • Any sugar that contains either: 1- A free aldehyde group. 2- An α-hydroxy ketone group. 3- A hemiacetal linkage • The presence of any of these groups allows the carbohydrate to undergo easy oxidation. • If the sugar gets oxidized it causes reduction. • Thus the name “reducing sugar”.
QUALITATIVE TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES
Molisch Test1Exp. • It is the general test for all carbohydrates. • Monosaccharides give a rapid positive test. Disaccharides and polysaccharides react slower.
Molisch Test1Exp. • The Molisch reagent dehydrates pentoses to form furfural. • dehydrates hexoses to form 5- hydroxymethyl furfural. • The furfurals further react with - naphthol present in the test reagent to produce a purple product.
Molisch Test1Exp. Method: • 1ml test solution + 2 drops of α-naphthol • mix well • add conc. H2SO4 down the side of the tube to form the ring at the interface of the two layers. - ve + ve
Fehling's Test2Exp. • This test is used to differentiate between reducing and non reducing sugars. • A reducing sugar reacts with Fehling's reagent in alkaline medium to form an orange to red precipitate. • Fehling's reagent is commonly used for reducing sugars but is known to be not specific for aldehydes. • Positive result is detected by reduction of the deep blue solution of cupric (II) to a red precipitate of insoluble cuprous oxide (Cu2O).
Fehling's Test2Exp. • Positive result is detected by reduction of the deep blue solution of cupric (II) to a red precipitate of insoluble cuprous oxide (Cu2O).
Fehling's Test2Exp. • The sucrose does not react with Fehling's reagent. Sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Most disaccharides are reducing sugars (e.g. lactose and maltose) • Sucrose is non-reducing sugar because the anomeric carbon of glucose is involved in the glucose- fructose bond and hence is not free to form the aldehyde in solution.
Fehling's Test2Exp. • Fehling's Reagent: 2solutions are required: *Fehling's “A" uses 7 g CuSO4.5H2O dissolved in distilled water containing 2 drops of dilute sulfuric acid. *Fehling's "B" uses 35g of potassium tartrate and 12g of NaOH in 100 ml of distilled water. .
Fehling's Test2Exp. Method: • 1ml test solution + 1ml Fehling's reagent • heat the mixture in BWB (5min) • Reddish brown ppt
Exp. 3 Benedict's Test • This test is used also to differentiate between reducing and non reducing sugars. • It works on the same principle but Benedict is more stable than Fehling's reagent. • Benedict's reagent contains blue copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) · 5H2O which is reduced to red copper(I) oxide by aldehydes, thus oxidizing the aldehydes to carboxylic acids. • The copper oxide is insoluble in water and so precipitates. The colour of the final solution ranges from green to brick red depending on how many of the copper (II) ions are present.
Benedict's Test3Exp. Method: • 1ml test solution + 1ml Benedict's reagent • heat the mixture in BWB (5min) • Reddish brown ppt
Exp. 4 Barfoid Test • It is a test used to differentiate between monosaccharides and disaccharides. This reaction will detect reducing monosaccharides in the presence of disaccharides. This reagent uses copper ions to detect reducing sugars in an acidic solution. Barfoed's reagent is copper acetate in dilute acetic acid (pH 4.6) • Reducing monosaccharides are oxidized by the copper ions in a weak acidic medium to form a carboxylic acid and a reddish ppt of Cu2O (cuprous oxide). • Reducing disaccharides (lactose but not sucrose) undergo the same reaction but at slower rate.
Exp. 4 Barfoid Test Method: • 1 ml of the solution to be tested + 2 ml of freshly prepared Barfoed's reagent. • Place test tubes into a boiling water bath and heat for 2 minutes. • Remove the tubes from the bath and allow to cool. • Formation of a green, red, or yellow precipitate is a positive test for reducing monosaccharides. • Do not heat the tubes longer than 3 minutes, as a positive test can be obtained with disaccharides if they are heated long enough.
Exp. 5 Seliwanoff Test • The test reagent dehydrates ketohexoses to form 5- hydroxymethylfurfural. • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural further reacts with resorcinol present in the test reagent to produce a red product within two minutes. • Aldohexoses react to form the same product, but do so more slowly.
Exp. 5 Seliwanoff Test Method: • 1/2 ml of a sample + 2ml of Seliwanoff's reagent (a solution of resorcinol and HCl) is added. • The solution is then heated in a boiling water bath for two minutes. • A positive test is indicated by the formation of a red product. • In case of sucrose, avoid over-boiling because sucrose may be hydrolyzed to its component (glucose and fructose) and gives false positive result. + ve- ve
Exp. 6 Hydrolysis Test • Sucrose is the only non-reducing sugar so it does not reduce the alkaline Cu solutions (Fehling and Benedict). Sucrose must first be hydrolyzed to its component and then test for.
Exp. 6 Hydrolysis Test Method: • 6 ml of 1% sucrose in a test tube + 2 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). • Heat the tube in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes. • Then test for Fehling, Benedict and all the previous tests.
Exp. 7 Iodine Test (Test for Polysaccharides) 1- Starch: • 1/2 mL of the fresh starch solution + 1 drop of the iodine solution. • A dark blue color indicates a positive test for starch. • If the yellow color of the iodine reagent simply becomes diluted, no starch is present. • Record the observation as positive (blue) or negative (yellow).
Exp. 7 Iodine Test (Test for Polysaccharides) 2- Dextrin: • 1/2 mL of the fresh dextrin solution + 1 drop of the iodine solution. • A violet color indicates a positive test for dextrin. • If the yellow color of the iodine reagent simply becomes diluted, no dextrin is present. • Record the observation as positive (violet) or negative (yellow).
Exp. 8 The preparation of osazone • Phenyl hydrazine reacts with normal carbonyls to produce phenyl hydrazones. RCR O NHNH2 H+ RCR N N H
The preparation of osazone8Exp. • 1- Sugars undergo a variation of this reaction in which 3 molecules of phenylhydrazine react with the sugar to produce a 1,2-diphenylhydrazone. • These 1,2-diphenylhydrazones are known as osazones. C OH C C C C CH2OH OHH HO H OHH OHH glucose NHNH2 CNNH C C C CH2OH H HO H OHH OHH CNNH 3 osazone
The preparation of osazone8Exp. • Because both carbons 1 and 2 are involved in the reaction C-2 epimers produce the same osazone. C OH C C C C CH2OH OHH HO H OHHO OHH glucose NHNH2 CNNH C C C CH2OH H HO H OHHO OHH CNNH 3 osazone C OH C C C C CH2OH HHO H OH OHH HO H NHNH2 3 mannose
The preparation of osazone8Exp. • Ketoses with configurations identical to aldoses below C-2 give the same osazones e.g. glucose and fructose. • Explain glucose and fructose form the same osazone? C OH C C C C CH2OH OHH HO H OHH OHH glucose NHNH2 CNNH C C C CH2OH H HO H OHH OHH CNNH 3 osazone CH2OH C C C C CH2OH O H OHH OHH HO NHNH2 3 fructose
The preparation of osazone8Exp. Characteristics of osazones: • Have a characteristic shape. • Have characteristic melting points. • Specific time and whether the osazone is formed from hot solutions or only on cooling.
The preparation of osazone8Exp. • Glucose + Phenyl hydrazine Glucosazone (broomed shape) • Fructose + Phenyl hydrazine Fructosazone (broomed shape)
The preparation of osazone8Exp. • Maltose + Phenylhydrazine Maltosazone (spherical shape) • Lactose + Phenyl hydrazine Lactosazone • Sucrose + Phenyl hydrazine -ve (WHY?)
The preparation of osazone8Exp. Method: • 1/2 g of phenyl hydrazine + 1 spoon sodium acetate + 2ml of glucose solution • BWB (45 min) until yellow crystals appear • cold and examine a sample of crystals under microscope. • Compare the crystal shapes with the supplied photographs.