Capstone Presentation: High-Temperature Microporous Insulation

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Information about Capstone Presentation: High-Temperature Microporous Insulation
Education

Published on December 13, 2013

Author: AlexMelvin

Source: slideshare.net

Description

My capstone presentation for materials engineering at McMaster. Work done with Steven Chortos, Darnelle Jones, Jeff Kay, for Advanced Ceramics Corp.

Advanced Ceramics Corp Advancement of microporous insulation Presented by: Darnelle Jones, Jeff Kay, Alex Melvin and Steven Chortos Mentors: Ritch Mathews and Dr. Zhitomirsky April 2nd, 2013

Contents          Background Procedure and error Linear change results SEM and XRD Sustainability Gantt chart Future direction Conclusion 2

AC80i vs AC80   Investigation done in 2011-2012 on AC80  Assumed by both parties that the properties were the same 3

Background  4

AC80i assumptions   Thermally resistant (1000 °C)  Made of:  Amorphous fumed silica  Rutile titania (mixture)  Silica fibres  Process:  Mixed together  Pressed by 75 ton force  Not fired (reduced cost) 5

What’s the problem?   Degradation of thermal properties at 1000°C  Onset of sintering  Shrinkage (densification)  Cracking 6

Problem statement  The overall goal of this project is to increase the operating temperature of AC80i by 100°C while keeping it economically viable. 7

Testing methods   Fibre coating  Reduce fibre-fibre contact (conduction)  SEM  Addition of fumed alumina  Inhibit sintering and phase change  Linear shrinkage  SEM  XRD 8

Procedure and error  9

Testing overview   Total days spent testing = 36  Total hours of furnace operation = 966  Total samples tested = 145  Usable samples = 90 10

Preparation   Fumed silica, TiO2 and silica fibres weighed and mixed in shear mixer  Alumina addition and final mixing  The Al2O3 was weighed and added to the bucket  Materials were mixed for approx 5 mins using a drill with a paint mixer attached to the end  Error in homogeneity of mix 11

Testing   Samples tested using a modified version of the ASTM C356-10 testing procedure  Samples were placed in furnace and held at temperature for 24 hours  Measurements  Initial samples were measured in each dimension  Significant error due to inconsistent measuring practice 12

Radiation Shields  13

Ladle example  14

Shield #1   Feb 12th-19th 3

Shield #2   Feb 25th-March 3rd 16

Shield #3   March 4th-12th 17

Shield #4   March 12th-April 1st (Morgan Thermal Ceramics – insulating fire bricks) 18

Linear change results  19

Design compositions   Alumina added      0 wt% (AC80i) 6 wt% 9.5 wt% 12.5 wt% 19 wt%  Final brick design  Cost vs linear shrinkage  12.5 wt% 20

Importance of testing direction  21

Morgan radiation shield 6% Worst Case Scenario 9.5% Worst Case Scenario 1100 1075 1050 0% 6% 1025 5% linear change Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) 1100 1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1075 1050 0% 9.5% 1025 5% linear change 1000 7 0 1 Linear Change (%) 3 4 5 6 Linear Change (%) 12.5% Worst Case Scenario 19% Worst Case Scenario 1100 1075 1050 0% 12.5% 1025 5% linear change 1000 Temperature (°C) 1100 Temperature (°C) 2 1075 1050 0% 19% 1025 5% linear change 1000 0 1 2 3 4 Linear Change (%) 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 Linear Change (%) 5 6 22

Final brick  ASTM Worst Case 1150 Temperature (°C) 1125 1100 1075 0% FB 5% linear change 1050 1025 1000 0 1 2 3 Linear Change (%) 4 5 6 23

SEM and XRD  24

Went in looking for:   Distribution of titania particles  Hard/soft fracture  Open/closed pores  Coating of silica fibres 25

Titania Particles   Titania acts as an opacifier, reducing the effects of radiation  Even distribution ensures effective scattering  Titania does appear to be distributed evenly 26

 3% alumina @ 1025 °C 27

Sharp/soft fracture   Looking for:  Sharp structures in the 1100 °C heated sample  Rounder edges in pre-densified samples  Some differences noted, but results were not definitive 28

 3% alumina @ 1100 °C 3% alumina @ 1025 °C 29

Open/closed pores   Unable to effectively image the pores using SEM  If the samples were mounted and polished rather than crushed, results may have been more informative 30

Coating of silica fibres   Compressive shear mixing was proposed to coat the silica fibres in a layer of fumed silica  Munson Machinery was investigated to mix, but communication fell through  Devised our own shear mixing method, but did not achieve fibre coating 31

 Centrifugal compressive-shear mill  Tomato strainer 32

Coated fibres 33

XRD Analysis   Went in looking for cristobalite in our samples  Alumina was originally added as a phase change and sintering suppressant  No cristobalite was found, even in the 0% alumina samples  Due to the difference in titania content 34

0-1000C.raw 0-1025C.raw 0-1075C.raw 0-1100C.raw 11,000 10,500 10,000 9,500 Results  9,000 8,500 8,000 7,500 Counts 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 2Th Degrees 16,500 16,000 15,500 15,000 14,500 10-1025C.raw 10-1050C.raw 10-1075C.raw 10-1100C.raw 14,000 13,500 13,000 12,500 12,000 Counts 11,500 11,000 10,500 10,000 9,500 9,000 8,500 8,000 7,500 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 2Th Degrees 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 35

Sustainability  36

Environmental   No increase in health risks to workers or users  No change in the environmental impact 37

Economical  53%  New markets  No new processing machines needed 38

Gantt chart  39

Proposed Gantt Chart 9/20/12 11/9/12 12/29/12 2/17/13 4/8/13 Meeting with Ritch Mathews Preliminary research Indepth research of proposed solutions Meeting with Dr. Zhitomirsky Problem statement presentation Meeting with Dr. Malakhov Proposal presentation preparation Proposal presentation Written proposal Testing preperation and testing Progress presentation #2 Progress presentation #3 Final presentation preparation Final presentation Final written report 40

Final Gantt Chart 9/20/12 11/9/12 12/29/12 2/17/13 4/8/13 Meeting with Ritch Mathews Preliminary research Indepth research of proposed solutions Meeting with Dr. Zhitomirsky Problem statement presentation Meeting with Dr. Malakhov Proposal presentation preparation Proposal presentation Written proposal Initial contact with Munson Contacting and ordering Al2O3 Contacting for TiO2 Correspondance with Munson Industry pick-up Industry visit (sample prep) Progress presentation #2 Furnace testing (JHE Correspondance with CANMet Progress presentation #3 SEM analysis XRD analysis Final report Final presentation preparation Final presentation 41

Future direction  42

General Heat Equation  q” = kΔT + hΔT + Conduction 4 ϵσΔT Convection Radiation k: thermal conductivity h: convective heat transfer coefficient ϵ: emissivity σ: Stefan-Boltzmann constant 43

Recommendations   Optimize particle size / opacifier material  Optimized opacifier = less radiant heat transfer  Evidence through radiation shields  Radiation shield in industry 44

AC80i radiation shield  Densification Results (AC80i Shield) 1100 Temperature (°C) 1075 6% 1050 9.5% 12.5% 19% 5% linear change 1025 1000 0 5 10 15 Linear Change (%) 20 25 30 45

Morgan radiation shield  Worst Case Densification Results 1100 Temperature (°C) 1075 6% 9.5% 1050 12.5% 19% 0% 5% linear change 1025 1000 0 1 2 3 4 Linear Change (%) 5 6 7 46

Suggestions   Design a solid radiation shield  Easy loading and unloading  Consistent heating  Accurate and reproducible results  Homogenous mix  Consistent mixing procedure  Reduction in error  Sample orientation  Consistent orientation of samples 47

Conclusion   AC 80i – Best option up to 1100 °C  Less linear shrinkage  Cheaper 48

Acknowledgements  Thank you • Ritch Mathews • Dr. Zhitomirsky • All of the MSE faculty 49

Questions? 50

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