advertisement

Canine neonatology

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Canine neonatology
Education

Published on December 10, 2013

Author: EmmanuelFontaine2

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Slides from our presentation on canine neonatology
advertisement

Neonatal mortality in canines: Tips to fight a real threat Emmanuel FONTAINE DVM, MSc, PhD, Dipl ECAR Royal Canin Canada

Canine Neonatal mortality Introduction The neonatal period From birth to 2-3 weeks of life From the litterature Year of the study Number of puppies 1957 1,157 Total % Stillbirths % Early neonatal mortality (<8d) 10.8 8.3 19.1% 2,872 2.2 Neonatal mortality is 9.7 2001 2,574 DEFINITELY a 7threat 11.5 1977 2012 58,439 4.3 3.7 11.9% 18.5% 8%

Canine Neonatal mortality Introduction What can be the cause? Non infectious causes - Congenital defects - Parturition - Husbandry Infectious causes - Septicemia - Specific agents - Virus Bacterias Protozoas Today, what can be done in terms of prevention?

Non infectious causes of neonatal mortality in canine neonates

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Congenital defects Some are “obvious” Cleft palates Anasarca Brain defect

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Congenital defects Some are not!!! Anal imperforation Bowel defects Cardiac defects

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Genetics Related to the development of anatomical defects Treatments  Surgery? Medical options?  Solutions may depend on the considered defect Prevention  Work around the pedigrees (when knowing the mode of transmission…)  Beware: not always related to genetics !!! Treatments during pregnancy +++ (tetracyclins/corticosteroids/…)

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Parturition’s unfolding Dystocia = Difficulty to whelp From the literature (Fontaine et al, 2007) Unfolding Nb of considered bitches % early neonatal mortality Normal parturition 1297 10.7 Dystocia 47 37.4 Emergency C-section 198 26.9

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Parturition’s unfolding Why? Prolonged expulsion time  Oxygen deprivation Clinical signs: - Weakness… - Pale mucosas… - Struggling to breath… But what is “normal” in terms of parturition???

Canine parturition… A matter of length… When? Beginning of labour Time to expel one pup already engaged OK Not OK < 24 h after drop of T > 48 h after drop and no labour 20 to 30 min > 1 hour HIGH VARIABILITY!!!!2 hours Delay between two 20 to 30 min puppies 1 to 2 hours at the end 2 hours at the ONLY EXPERIENCE WILL>endtoof4parturition HELP TO of parturition DETECT ABNORMALITIES   Improductive efforts Total duration 30 to 60 minutes 4 to 8 Heures (until 24h for big litters or primiparous bitches).

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates But when nothing is happening… What should be done? Most frequent answers: 1/ Use oxytocin 2/ Ask for oxytocin injection ???? 3/ Ask for a C-section

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates What is oxytocin? Oxytocin An endogenous hormone… Stimulating uterine contractions… Several injectable forms Should only be used under veterinary supervision!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates The risks of oxytocin… Use of oxytocin in this case can lead to: Uterine inertia Uterine rupture!!! Transverse presentation Improductive labour efforts

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates What to do???  Walk the parturient bitch!!!  Oral calcium gluconate administration as an option  If no effect, go for an emergency consultation!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Parturition’s unfolding How to anticipate? 1/ Knowing the due date  Canine Pregnancy Length = 63± 1 days…  … from the day of ovulation!!! Perform a timing of ovulation prior to breeding!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Parturition’s unfolding How to anticipate? 2/ Predisposing factors Breed Body condition Litter size

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Parturition’s unfolding High risk of dystocia  Planned C-section Many advantages!!! During the daylight… A complete surgical team Improved management of anesthesia, surgery and neonatal ressuscitation Levy et al, 2008 50 bitches… 229 puppies… 0% neonatal mortality after surgery… 2.6% after 15 days…

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Husbandry A major concern… Something YOU can directly impact

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates The newborn puppy An immature living being Immature immune system Unable to regulate its internal temperature “ More neonates die from improper husbandry and nutrition than diseases” Immature digestive function Predisposed to dehydratation Few glucose reserves

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Unable to regulate its internal temperature First week of life: 35-36°C Hypothermia Less active < 34°C No more digestion… < 32°C Loss of suckling reflex… © Internet

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences In case of: - Weak puppy… - Rejected by its mother… - Losing weight… - Unable to feed itself… - Unable to being fed… 1st © UMES - Brau

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences In case of: - 2nd Weak puppy… Rejected by its mother… Losing weight… Unable to feed itself… Unable to being fed… Recommended Nest Especially BEFORE temperature: bottle-fed trying to st week: 30°C - 1 - 2nd week: 28°C - 3rd week: 25°C © ENVA

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Predisposed to dehydratation “We are animated water” > 82% water AND - Skin barrier not completely effective yet… - Immature kidneys…

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences Feed frequently: - 1st week: at least 8 meals/day - 2nd week: at lest 6 meals/day - 3rd week: at least 4 meals/day © UMES - Casseleux Check hygrometry in the nursery: - 55-65% - If too high  Pathogens +++ - If too low  Dehydration © ENVA

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Few glucose reserves Predisposed to hypoglycaemia Few reserves Liver/Pancreas not functional yet Regulation  FEEDING © Internet

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences Feed frequently: - 1st week: at least 8 meals/day - 2nd week: at lest 6 meals/day - 3rd week: at least 4 meals/day © ENVA © UMES - Brau Use a milk replacer if necessary: - Too many puppies - Not enough natural milk

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Immunity through colostrum consumption Immature immune system Colostrum 1st milk secretion Enriched in specific antibodies… Secreted approx. 24h… © Internet Absorbed approx. 24h…

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences © UMES - Malandain Be sure neonates suckle colostrum: - If not, turn to “alternatives”: - commercial substitutes? - frozen colostrum - foster mother Ensure optinal hygiene in the nursery - Cleaning/Disinfecting - Optimal design © UMES - Casseleux

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Immature digestive function Neonates ≠ “small adults” Less mucous membranes Can’t defecate by themselves Can digest lactose… But can’t digest starch

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences What should be done: - Don’t overfeed  DIARRHEA © UMES - Brau - Stimulate after feeding (in case the mother does not do so) - If bottle feeding, check the internal temperature! - Avoid starch in milk replacers! © ENVA

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates “A healthy puppy gains weight on a daily basis” Weigh EVERYDAY during the first 2 weeks of life Weight loss is usually the 1st clinical sign when something goes wrong If stagnation or decrease: - Try to Bottle/tube feeding - If no improvement vet consultation

Why using milk replacers? Nutritional needs of neonates should be filled by the mother. But sometimes… © Casseleux Not enough weight gain… Not enough milk produced by the mother… Bad maternal behaviour… Disease affecting the mother… Death of the mother… © UMES - Casseleux

Why using dedicated milk replacers? Not the same milk composition: - More diluted - Less energy - Not the same levels of Calcium and Phosphorus © Internet Home made?: © Internet Very difficult to make (balance) Very difficult to preserve Very difficult to distribute Hygienic issues

Why using dedicated milk replacers? About the use of milk replacers… CP CN CT (Case et al, 2011) (Adkins et al, 2001) (Jacobsen et el, 2004) Energy (kcal ME/L) 690 1400-1800 850-1600 PT (%) 4.6 6.9 8.7 Fat (%) 4.5 11.4 12.7 Lactose (%) 4.6 4.1 4.2 Different profiles requiring different nutritional solutions…

Infectious causes of neonatal mortality in canine neonates

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia What is it??? Bacterial overgrowth Where do they come from??? Immune system overload Death…

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Two origins The mother The environment

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Two origins Tartar !!! Milk !!! The mother

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Toxic milk syndrom Main causes: - Hygienic issues +++ - Post partum uterine infections Toxic milk syndrom Main symptoms: Mastitis Puppies abdominal enlargment Abdominal pain after suckling

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Toxic milk syndrom  Medical treatment of the mother and the puppies  ± medical treatment to stop lactation Toxic milk syndrom

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Environmental contamination Licking the surfaces Umbilical cord +++++ The environment

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Environmental contamination Umbilical cord infection Ocular infection Skin infection First requirement: good hygiene of the neonates environment!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates What you can do to help.. Care of the umbilical cord Belly of the puppy Umbilical cord = blood vessels = communicate with the abdominal cavity!!! 2/ 3/1/ Suture clean Cut it with it Disinfect its far from below the scissors the belly! terminal end with an suture! antiseptic solution!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Specific agents Many are described!!! Very little is known about most of them!!! Virus Bacteria Parasites Herpesvirus CHV1 Brucella Neospora Minute Virus CPV1 Leptospira Toxoplasma Distemper Coxiella … … …

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Herpesvirus CHV1 A kennel scourge? Sometimes considered as ????????? the most dangerous infectious agent in kennels…  More than 80% of dogs are affected!!!

Viral infectious diseases Herpesvirosis The agent  A virus with an enveloppe  Little resistance in the outer environment Its Specificities  Herpesvirus can hide from the immune system: concerned animals are infected for life  Reactivation at specific lifestages (oestrus, pregnancy, disease,…)

Viral infectious diseases Herpesvirosis Transmission  Contact between animals is required  The virus can be found in all secretions/excretions especially during mating

Viral infectious diseases Herpesvirosis Symptoms In adults: Respiratory symptoms White pimples on cold mucosas (vulva,mouth,…) In breeding bitches: Abortion? Infertility? In neonates: Fadding puppy Neonatal mortality (3-21d) MOST OF AFFECTED ADULTS ARE ASYMPTOMATICS!!!

Viral infectious diseases Herpesvirosis Prophylaxis Sanitary prophylaxis Medical prophylaxis APPROPRIATE CLEANING & DISINFECTING PROCEDURE Vaccines are available in Europe Artificial insemination? Nest temperature +++

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Herpesvirus CHV1 A kennel scourge?  Definitely NOT !!! Rocha A et al. Impact of Canine herpesvirus-1 in neonatal mortality. E.V.S.S.A.R. Congress. Milan (Italia) 2011.  45 necropsies performed  3 / 45 positive for CHV1 – 2 in low charge – 1 in high charge

Neonatalogy… Go further deep in the diagnosis Breeders are unfortunately predisposed to encounter neonatal mortality issues Don’t hesitate to ask for a necropsy!!!

Thank you for your attention!!! Stay in touch with us!!!

Thank you for your attention!!! Questions? Feel free to ask: emmanuel.fontaine@royalcanin.com www.linkedin.com/in/emmanuelfontaine twitter.com/DrEFontaine www.facebook.com/emmanuel.fontaine.758

Merci de votre attention!!! The discussion goes on!!!! http://clubeleveursroyalcanin.ning.com/ - Accès à notre Service Technique en ligne! Follow us on Facebook… - Blogue - Forum - Articles… … or on Twitter @DrEFontaine!

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology - CRC Press Book

Summary. Winner of Dog Writers Association of America's Dogwise Best Book Award. Canine Reproduction is a practical guide for veterinarians and an ...
Read more

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology - Facebook

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology. 1,247 likes · 3 talking about this. Canine Reproduction is a practical guide for veterinarians, veterinary staff and...
Read more

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology: Marthina L. Greer ...

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology [Marthina L. Greer] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Winner of Dog Writers ...
Read more

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology: Amazon.de: Marthina L ...

Englischsprachige Bücher: Canine Reproduction and Neonatology bei Amazon: Schnelle Lieferung Kostenloser Versand für Bücher
Read more

CANINE NEONATOLOGY - Amazon S3

30 PRACTICING VETERINARIAN YEARS A diet that has high energy and contains highly digestible proteins as well as vitamins in the correct balance will ...
Read more

BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Reproduction and ...

Gary England - BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Reproduction and Neonatology (BSAVA - British Small jetzt kaufen. ISBN: 9781905319190, Fremdsprachige ...
Read more

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology | Revival Animal Health

Canine Reproduction and Neonatology is a practical guide for veterinarians, breeders, kennel operators, and anyone with an interest in the breeding and ...
Read more

Canine Neonatology | VetBooks

by Marthina L. Greer December 2014 Canine Reproduction is a practical guide for veterinarians and an information source for breeders, kennel operators and ...
Read more