Candidi SCAR

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Information about Candidi SCAR

Published on March 28, 2008

Author: Stentore


The Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) and its Scientific Research Programs (SRP’s):  The Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) and its Scientific Research Programs (SRP’s) M. Candidi Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research Standing Scientific Group on Physical Sciences chair IFSI-INAF, Roma, Italia Outline of presentation:  Outline of presentation SCAR: the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research SCAR Standing Scientific Groups (SSG’s) SCAR Scientific Research Programs (SRP’s) IASC the International Arctic Scientific Committee Slide3:  ICSU established the IGY, the International Geophysical Year, 1957-58, which included a major Antarctic component, the Special Committee on Antarctic Research to coordinate the scientific research of the twelve nations which were active in Antarctica. The success of the IGY led to the establishment of the ICSU Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and to the development of the Antarctic Treaty. SCAR is charged by ICSU with the initiation, promotion and co-ordination of scientific research in Antarctica. SCAR provides international scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). SCAR is the interdisciplinary, non-governmental organization which draws on the expertise of an international mix of scientists across the complete scientific spectrum. After the IGY, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the ATS and made recommendations, most of which have been incorporated into ATS instruments, like the international agreements which protect the ecology and environment of Antarctica. The appointed national Delegates from the member states of SCAR, meet every two years. They decide SCAR policy and strategy. They also elect from among themselves an Executive Committee. SCAR history Slide4:  President Prof. Chris G Rapley British Antarctic Survey Cambridge United Kingdom Past-President Prof. Dr. Jörn Thiede Alfred Wegener Institut Bremerhaven, Germany Prof. Antonio Meloni Istituto Nazionale Geofisica Vulcanologia Roma, Italia Prof. Sergio Marenssi Instituto Antarctico Argentino Buenos Aires Prof. Mahlon Kennicut Director Sustainable Development College Station USA Prof. Zhanhai Zhang Polar Research Institute China Vice-Presidents Two stay, two go at each SCAR assembly Executive Director Dr. Colin Summerhayes Scott Polar Research Institute Cambridge United Kingdom Executive Committee As determined in Hobart, July 2006 Slide5:  SCAR Membership growth chart Argentina Australia Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada Chile China Ecuador Finland France Germany India Italy Japan Korea Netherlands New Zealand Norway Peru Poland Russia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uruguay URSI IUPS IUPAC IUGS IUGG IUBS IGU Denmark Malaysia Pakistan Portugal IAU requested to join SCAR in 2006, John Storey nominated as IAU representative to SCAR. Decision to be made in St. Petersburg Full member countries, and unions Associate member countries Slide6:  Article III of The Antarctic Treaty 1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica .. the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: a. … b. … c. scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available. Scientific Programs of SCAR:  Scientific Programs of SCAR ACE (Antarctic Climate Evolution) expressed by SSG/GS EBA (Evolution and Biodiversity in Antarctica) expressed by SSG/LS SALE (Sub Antarctic Lake Exploration) interdisciplinary AGCS (Antarctica in the Global Climate System) expressed by SSG/PS ICESTAR (Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research) expressed by SSG/PS All established in Bremen at SCAR XXVIII In Hobart, at SCAR XXIX, the Delegates have welcomed the proposal to establish a third SRP within SSG/PS, on Antarctic Astronomy. This will be drafted before July 2007 and presented officially to the Delegates in Saint Petersburg, at SCARXXX, in July 2008 Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Geo Sciences :  Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Geo Sciences ACE (Antarctic Climate Evolution) to continue the study of Antarctic climate and glacial history, during the last 140 million years, by linking climate and ice sheet modelling studies with geophysical surveys and geological investigations on and around the Antarctic continent Slide9:  ACE - Antarctic Climate Evolution Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Life Sciences :  Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Life Sciences EBA (Evolution and Biodiversity in Antarctica) Understand the evolution and diversity of life in the Antarctic. Determine how these have influenced the properties and dynamics of present Antarctic ecosystems and the Southern Ocean system. Make predictions on how organisms and communities are responding and will respond to current and future environmental change. Identify EBA science outcomes that are relevant to conservation policy and to communicate this science to the SCAR Antarctic Treaty System via the SCAR ATS Committee Outcomes of EBA: scientific applications:  Outcomes of EBA: scientific applications Comprehensive and evolutive census of Antarctic marine biodiversity Assessment of effects of climate change Assessment of effects of global scale pollution Prediction of spread of invasive species Detection of biodiversity hotspots from species to phylum levels Facilitation of biogeographic synthesis Identification of gaps in biodiversity surveys Interdisciplinary Program of the three Standing Scientific Groups:  Interdisciplinary Program of the three Standing Scientific Groups SALE (Sub Glacial Lake Exploration) Advance our understanding of the geological evolution of our planet’s 5th largest continent, through a holistic view of the forces that have shaped Antarctica, and the subglacial sedimentary records of Antarctic paleoclimate and ice sheet history, and stability Develop the next generation of ice sheet models incorporating subglacial environments Refine and improve accurate portrayal of the complex interplay of tectonics, ice sheet dynamics and climate. Define the role of subglacial discharges in (past) ocean circulation and deep-water formation, past and future climate change, geomorphic change, and material exchange and biological diversity among lakes Identify seed organisms and their adaptations in response to tectonic, geological and climatic forcings. Establish the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of subglacial organisms and their evolutionary position in the Tree of Life. Latest Scientific Findings:  Latest Scientific Findings Subglacial Lakes are Common Features of Ice Sheets - more than 145 identified Subglacial Lakes A Spectrum of Subglacial Environments – the beginnings of a classification system Subglacial Hydrologic Systems – rapid water movement beneath ice sheets Linkage of Subglacial Lakes and Ice Streams –subglacial lakes influence ice sheet movement Paleo-outbursts of Subglacial Waters – possible links to global climate change Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Physical Sciences :  Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Physical Sciences AGCS (Antarctica in the Global Climate System) .. the role of Antarctica in the global climate system and in Global Change ... a cross-disciplinary Scientific Programme Planning Group .. Determine the future directions of SCAR climate science. Provide a climate system research network to advise SCAR and enhance cooperation between SCAR and major international climate programmes (WCRP, IGBP, IHDP, etc) Slide15:  To understand the mechanisms controlling the climate of the Antarctic – its cycles and variability To explain why the climate has changed in the past – roughly the last 20K years since the Last Glacial Maximum To predict how the climate of the Antarctic might change over the next century under various greenhouse gas emission scenarios The Goals of AGCS Theme 1 – Decadal time scale variability (Dave Bromwich) Theme 2 - Global & Regional Signals in Ice Cores (Paul Mayewski) Theme 3 – Natural/Anthropogenic Forcing on the Antarctic Climate System (John Turner) Theme 4 - The Export of Antarctic Climate Signals (Mike Meredith) Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Physical Sciences :  Programs of the Standing Scientific Group on Physical Sciences ICESTAR (Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar Terrestial and Aeronomy Research) Solar-terrestrial, geophysical and atmospheric physics observations in the Arctic and Antarctic, to study two kinds of interhemispheric conjugacy: (1) Antarctica is a landmass, but an ocean covers the Arctic; asymmetry in the physics and chemistry of the polar atmosphere. (2) geomagnetic: The geomagnetic poles are shifted with respect to the geographic poles (9° in the north, 15° in the south). SCAR Cross-Linkages Workshop 6-8 November 2006 Societa Geografica Italiana, Villa Celimontana, Rome, Italy:  SCAR Cross-Linkages Workshop 6-8 November 2006 Societa Geografica Italiana, Villa Celimontana, Rome, Italy (i) primary objective: to encourage the development of cross-discipline research within SCAR, to develop concrete actions that will lead to a closer working relationship between SCAR's SRPs and the SSGs, including ways to make these interaction work better – such as joint sponsorship of workshops, science sessions at meetings, combining efforts on education, outreach and communication, and on data where appropriate, and other activities that will bring the communities together. (ii) how are the different SRP’s planning to deal with the data sharing and archiving issues. (iii) IPY developments Slide18:  With regard to combining efforts on education, outreach and communication: What is expected of SSG’s, in view of the SCAR communication plan? SRPs and SSGs should be developing their ideas on how to implement the SCAR capacity building education and training plan and the SCAR communications plan in their specific areas. With regard to data sharing, this is the province of JCADM working with the SSGs and SRPs. The development of a SCAR data and information strategy has been postponed pending the development of such a strategy by the IPY data committee, which is co-chaired by the chair of JCADM. Slide19:  4. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR IMPROVING LINKAGES 4.1 IASC … SCAR and IASC intend to combine their efforts in selected fields and activities .. so as to raise the level of impact of both organizations in terms of scientific advances and of advising policy makers (for example of the likelihood and likely effects of climate change), as well as to avoid duplication. These linkages are now the subject of a Letter of Agreement under which SCAR and IASC agree: (i) to invite each other to attend the meetings of their major bodies (SCAR Delegates’ Meeting and IASC Council); (ii) to encourage appropriate linkages between the relevant existing SCAR and IASC scientific projects; (iii) to encourage their scientific communities to develop joint bipolar projects and approaches in appropriate fields; (iv) to work together in arranging workshops, conferences, and reports on topics of mutual scientific interest; (v) to exchange ideas on best practices in data and information management; (vi) to exchange newsletters and advertise each other’s newsletters and web sites on their own web sites; (vii) to develop combined approaches to communicating with the wider community on the significance of polar research to the solution of societal issues, including their respective experience in giving advice to the AC and ATCM. The agreement will remain in force for 5 years, thereafter be reviewed and continued as appropriate. Slide20:  Examples of cross-linkages in ICESTAR activities: monitoring ionospheric electron content and irregularities using GPS receivers. If we know more about the ionosphere and its effects we can make GPS more accurate. There is also a potential link to POLENET, which has a wide network of GPS receivers. (b) TIMIS studies the possible link (transfer of energy) between powerful weather systems and the upper atmosphere/ionosphere. Slide21:  The IPY requests bipolar attitude: most of the scientists involved in ICESTAR have a bipolar program; I would like to check whether any of them is officially involved with IASC. Suggestion: ICESTAR to request the addition of a representative of IASC, a scientist mostly involved with northern hemisphere STP science, to the Steering Committee. (This would be a sign to SCAR and to the IPY of the attention that ICESTAR gives to the bipolar theme). Slide22:  The International Arctic Science Committee IASC Membership The IASC member organisations are national science organisations covering all fields of Arctic research. Each national member organisation has a mechanism to provide ongoing contact between its council member and its Arctic science community. Slide23:  IASC Structure IASC uses this structure to identify scientific priorities, members of working groups, etc. A science programme recommended by IASC should be of high priority to Arctic or global science. Council National Representatives Executive Committee President Four Vice Presidents Chair or Regional Board Executive Secretary Regional Board Representatives from the eight Arctic countries Secretariat Executive Secretary Assistant IASC is a non-governmental organisation whose aim is to encourage and facilitate cooperation in all aspects of Arctic research, in all countries engaged in Arctic research and in all areas of the Arctic region. IASC Mission Slide24:  IASC Projects IASC assists with project development by providing guidelines for preparation of project proposals seed money for project planning travel support for younger scientists IASC projects cover all fields of Arctic research Emphasis is on circum-Arctic cooperation IASC supports 10 – 15 projects which are described in the IASC Project Catalogue and on the IASC web site: International Polar Year 2007/2008 (IPY) Slide25:  Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) An international project of the Arctic Council and IASC to evaluate and synthesize knowledge on Arctic climate variability, climate change, and their impacts. ACIA Reports Scientific Report (1000 pages) Synthesis Report (140 pages) Policy Report 2nd International Conference on Arctic Research Planning Prepares Arctic research plans to guide international co-operation over the next 10-15 years Brings together senior and young scholars, policy experts, Arctic indigenous and other residents, science and land managers as well as funding agencies Conference took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, 10-12 November 2005 Comprehensive pre-conference process engaged over 140 scientists in the preparation of 12 science plans Slide26:  Thank you. I hope to see you all in Saint Petersburg! (2008! results to be highlighted, midway through IPY) The SOC is now in the process of listing the session titles: I would like input from ICESTAR and IHY

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