Published on March 10, 2014
CANCER COME, LET US KNOW IT BETTER!! 07 March 2014
Background Cells divide and multiply as the body needs them. When these cells continue multiplying when the body doesn't need them, the result is a mass or growth, also called a tumour.
What is Cancer? (continued) Cells can become cancerous because of damage to the cell’s DNA (DNA directs all of the cells’ actions). In cancer cells damaged DNA is not repaired, and the cell will go on making new cells with the damaged DNA. These mutations in the DNA may promote cell growth, interfere with growth restraint, or prevent cell death. Cancer can often arise slowly developing over several decades. The abnormal mass of cells is called a tumor. Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer; they have different characteristics, occur in different locations of the body, take different courses, and require different treatments.
The Characteristics of Cancer As genes switch on and off, they determine when and how fast the cell will grow and divide, when it will stop dividing, and even when it will die. Cancer can result when controls over cell division are lost…
IS CANCER 100% CURABLE??????? YES…….…IF DETECTED EARLY!!!! Early detection of cancer is very important because at the time when cancer start developing in human body, in most of the cancer cases depending on the type of cancer it doesn’t show any early symptoms like Jaundice, Malaria, etc.. And also if cancer is detected and treated at the early stage then it is 100% curable.
WHY IS CRAB ( )THE SYMBOL OF CANCER? “Cancer” is the Latin word for crab. In its natural habitat, a crab is a fast, resilient decapod crustacean that springs to action and moves in multiple directions. Similarly cancer spreads from the place at which it first arose as a primary tumor to distant locations in the body.
HOW DOES IT SPREAD IN OUR BODY? •The cells within malignant tumors have the ability to invade neighboring tissues and organs, thus spreading the disease. •It is also possible for cancerous cells to break free from the tumor site and enter the bloodstream, spreading the disease to other organs. •This process of spreading is called metastasis.
STAGES OF CANCER (colon) Stage 0: Very early cancer on the innermost layer of the intestine Stage I: Cancer is in the inner layers of the colon Stage II: Cancer has spread through the muscle wall of the colon Stage III: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodesStage IV: Cancer that has spread to other organs
WHICH PARTS OF THE BODY ARE AFFECTED BY CANCER? Almost all the major parts of our body may be affected by cancer.
CAUSES OF CANCER
Cancer Is One Outcome of A Runaway Cell Cycle Licentious division - prostate cancer cells during division.
Carcinogenesis – development of cancer Tends to be gradual, takes years The Cell Cycle and Cancer
Cancer Cells Versus Normal Cells
Cancer Treatment Chemotherapy treatment uses medicine to weaken and destroy cancer cells in the body, including cells at the original cancer site and any cancer cells that may have spread to another part of the body.
Hormone therapy Some types of cancer, for example, breast cancer and prostate cancer, depend on hormones to grow. For this reason, doctors may recommend therapy that prevents cancer cells from getting or using the hormones they need. Sometimes, the patient has surgery to remove the organs (like the ovaries or testes) that make the hormones. Or drugs are used to stop hormone production or change the way the hormones work. Hormone therapy may cause nausea, swelling of the limbs or weight gain through water retention. In women, there may be irregular periods and vaginal dryness. In men, there may be impotence or loss of sexual desire.
Biological Therapy Biological therapy, also called immunotherapy, uses the body's own immune system to fight infection and disease or protect the body from some of the side effects of other forms of treatment. Monoclonal antibodies, interferon, interleukin-2, and colony- stimulating factors such as GM-CSF and G-CSF, are forms of biological therapy. These treatments often cause temporary flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, muscle aches and weakness, loss of appetite and diarrhoea.
Cancer Prevention (continued) 5. Limit alcohol consumption to no more than one drink per day for women, or two for men. Alcohol use has been linked to increased risk mouth, throat, voice box, esophagus, liver, breast, colon and rectum and the risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. 6. Practice safe sex. Both HPV, the most common STD, and Hepatitis B can cause cancer. 7. Protect your skin from sun exposure. The sun's UV rays cause the vast majority of skin cancers includi.ng melanoma, which can be life-threatening. Sun screen alone is not a good enough preventative measure. One needs to wear protective clothing or seek shade as well. Works Cited Greviskes, A. (April 15, 2010). The cancer blog: Develop a cancer prevention program, http://www.thecancerblog.com/. Whiney, E. a. (2008). Understanding Nutrition. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.
PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE!!
Screening and Testing Cancer screening refers to processes by which cancer can be detected before symptoms occur. This often increases chances for recovery. TYPES OF TESTS There are over 200 different types of cancer, and many different methods of testing. The following are basic categories of screening for cancer. 1.) Physical Examination and History: -A doctor examines the body for lumps, changes, and any other abnormalities. The doctor also considers age and personal history. This is the primary and least invasive of all screening methods. 2.) Laboratory Tests: -Samples of blood, urine, tissue biopsies, or other bodily substances are used to detect cancer. 3.) Imaging Procedures: - Images of the internal body systems can be obtained and analyzed through X-ray, MRI, CT Scans, Colonoscopy, Endoscopy, Mammography etc. 4.) Genetic Tests: -Tests that screen for mutations in DNA which can cause cancer.
Carcinogenesis Occurs in Predictable Steps
Benign and malignant Benign tumours do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd out (squash) surrounding cells eg brain tumour, warts. Malignant tumours can spread from the original site and cause secondary tumours. This is called metastasis. They interfere with neighbouring cells and can block blood vessels, the gut, glands, lungs etc. Both types of tumour can tire the body out as they both need a huge amount of nutrients to sustain the rapid growth and division of the cells.
Main Features of Benign and Malignant Tumors
Cancer Spreads Step-by-Step
HARMFUL EFFECTS OF TOBACCO
HARMFUL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL
SYMPTOMS OF CANCER ‽Unexplained loss of weight ‽A wound that has not healed for a long time ‽ Abnormal menstrual periods ‽Blood loss from any natural orifice
APPROACHES TO CONTROL CANCER There are four principal approaches to cancer control: 1. Prevention 2. Early Detection 3. Diagnosis and Treatment 4. Palliative Care
PROPER DIAGNOSIS Recognizing possible warning signs of cancer and taking prompt action leads to early diagnosis. Early diagnosis is particularly relevant for cancers of the breast, cervix, mouth, larynx, colon and rectum, and skin. Screening is the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or defects by means of tests, examinations, or other procedures that can be applied rapidly.
finally Remember you can’t inherit cancer its just that you maybe more susceptible to getting it. so be careful and prevent your self
LET US FIGHT CANCER!!!!!!
Cancer Support Groups There are several support groups to cancer patients and their families. America Cancer societies, Make A wish foundation, American Lung Associations and several others.
THANK YOU! THE END!
REFFERENCES LIST Carla, L. (2013). Cancer PPT. [online] available: http://www.slideshare.net/carlalovesyou/cancer-ppt-from-mrs. access on 07 March 2014 Jilani, T. (2012). Research at Postgraduate Student cancer. [online] available: http://www.slideshare.net/TkjJilani/cancer-13575103. access on 07 March 2014 Mulpuri, S. (2014). Cancer. [online]available: http://www.slideshare.net/sreedevimulpuri/cancer-30031158. Access on 06 March 2014 Prajapat, S. (2013). Cancer. [online] available: http://www.slideshare.net/suryaprajapat16/cancer-28843451. access on 07 March 2014 Zehner, M. (2010). Cancergroup4-final. [Online] available: http://www.slideshare.net/MicheleZehner/cancergroup4-final11. access on 06 March 2014
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