Cancer and ayurvedic prospective

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Information about Cancer and ayurvedic prospective

Published on January 14, 2016

Author: hemanth4

Source: slideshare.net

1. Dr.M.Hemanth kumar – M.Sc.Ph.D.MBA Research Head of Patanjali

2. Some 0.7 million new cases of cancer are reported every year in India. It is estimated that there are 2.5 million cancer cases at any point of time and the disease claims around 0.4 million deaths annually. India represents about 8% of estimated global cancer deaths and about 6% of all deaths in India. Data for 10 cities that are part of the population-based cancer registries maintained by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) show, for instance, Ahmedabad has the highest percentage of tobacco-related cancer cases and Delhi has the lowest cancer mortality. Annually, nearly 500,000 people die of cancer in India. The WHO said this number is expected to rise to 700,000 by 2015 Cancer incidence and mortality in India

3. With a million new cases being reported every year, cancer seems to be tightening its grip on India. Experts say the incidence of the killer disease is expected to rise five-fold by 2025

4. Biomarkers in tumor diagnostics Tumor markers represent a subset of biomarkers that are indicative for cancerous growth. Most of these marker are being produced by both normal cells as well as tumor cells. The levels at which they are present in bodily fluids like urine, saliva or blood are however typically significantly higher in patients with various malignancies. There is a plethora of tumor markers being used which can be classified base on their function, the way they are detected, or the kind of sample in which they are measured: Oncofetal antigens Tumor associated antigens Hormones and hormone receptors Enzymes and isoenzymes Serum and tissue proteins Cancer stem cells other tumor markers such genetic markers and biomolecules.

5. How to measure tumor markers Presently, the majority are proteins or peptides. Consequently, they can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured using immunological methods such as ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, or other methods depending on the nature of the marker and of the sample. An increasing number of tumor markers are also based on genetic variations. Altered expression patterns and mutations in certain oncogenes do not affect the type of malignancy but are also determinants for the response to treatment.

6. Ayurvedic concept of cancer Charaka and Sushruta samhitas inflammatory non-inflammatory Arbuda (major neoplasm) Granthi (minor neoplasm) benign neoplasm (Vataja, Pittaja or Kaphaja ) Malignant tumors (Tridosaja)

7. Fundamental classification Ayurvedic classification of neoplasm depends on various clinical symptoms in relation to Tridoshas : Group I: Diseases that can be named as clear malignancy, which includes arbuda and granthi, e.g. mamsarbuda (melanoma) and raktarbuda (leukemia), mukharbuda (oral cancer), etc. Group II: Diseases that can be considered as cancer, such as incurable ulcers with e.g. tridosaj gulmas (abdominal tumours like carcinomas of the stomach and liver or lymphomas). Group III: Diseases with the possibility of malignancy, e.g. Visarpa (erysipelas), asadhya kamala (incurable jaundice) and nadi vrana (sinusitis) Sushruta has proposed six stages in the pathogenesis of all diseases but his concept suits more to the pathology of the tumor than pathogenesis itself. 1. Sanchaya: early stages of localized neoplastic changes. 2. Prakopa: transformation of primary growths into metastatic tumours. 3. Prasara: metastasis. 4. Sthana samsraya: complete metastasis and secondary growth. 5. Vyakti: clinical signs and symptoms are expressed. 6. Bheda: the stage where differentiation of growth occurs on the basis of histopathology

8. HERBS WITH ANTICANCER ACTIVITY Ashwagangdha (Withenia somnifera) Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) Haridra (Curcuma longa) Tulsi (Oscimium sanctum) Pippali (Piper longum) Neem (Azadirachta indica) Garlic (Allium sativa) Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Shatavari (Asparagous racemosus) Shilajit Daruhaldi (berberis aristata)

9. HERBS WITH ANTICANCER ACTIVITY Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan yew) Vitis vinifera (Grape) Punica granatum (pomegranate) Largerstroemia speciosa (Banaba) Psidium guavajava (Guava) Coleus forskoli (pakanbhed) Paris polyphylla (dhood bach) Picrorhiza kurroa (kutki) Pterocarpus marsupium (vijaysar) Silybum marianum (Milk thistle)

10. Plant source Compound Family Allamanda cathartica Allamandin Apocynaceae Ipomoea batatas 4-ipomeanol Convolvulaceae Penstemon deutus Penstimide Scrophulariaceae Baccharis megapotamica Baccharin Compositae Helenium autumnale Helenalin Compositae Liatris chapmanii Liatrin Compositae Phyllanthus acuminatus Phyllanthoside Euphorbiaceae Vernonia hymenolepis Vernolepin Compositae Phyllanthus acuminatus Gnidin Thymelaeaceae

11. Jatropha gossypiifolia Jatrophone Euphorbiaceae Taxus brevifolia Taxol Taxaceae Brucea antidysenterica Bruceantin Simaroubaceae Simarouba glauca Glaucarubinone Simaroubaceae Holacantha emoryi Holacanthone Simaroubaceae Marah oreganus Cucurbitacin Cucurbitaceae Acernegundo Acer saponin P Aceraceae Bersama abyssinica Hellebrigenin Melianthaceae Acnistus arborescens Withaferin A Solanaceae Combretum caffrum Combretastin A-4 Combretaceae

12. Podophyllum peltatum α-and β-peltatin Berberidaceae P.hexandrum, P.peltatum Podophyllotoxin Berberidaceae Steganotaenia araliaaceae Steganacin Umbelliferae Jacaranda caucana Jacaranone Bignoniaceae Stereospermum sauveolens Lapachol Bignoniaceae Crotalaria spectabilis Monocrotaline Leguminosae Heliotropium indicum Indicine-N-oxide Boraginaceae Cephaelis acuminata Emetine Rubiaceae Cyclea peltata Tetrandrine Menispermaceae Thalictrum dasycarpum Thalicarpine Ranunculaceae

13. Fagara zanthoxyloides Nitidine Rutaceae F.macrophylla Nitidine Rutaceae Tylophora crebiflora Tylocrebine Asclepiadaceae Acronychia baueri Acronycine Rutaceae Ochrosia elliptica, O.moorei Ellipticine Apocynaceae O.maculata 9-methoxyellipticine Apocynaceae Camptotheca acuminata Camptothecin Nyssaceae Cephalotaxus harringtonia Harringtonine Cephalotaxaceae C.harringtonia Homoharringtonine Cephalotaxaceae Catharanthus lanceus, C. Leurosine Apocynaceae

14. Approved anticancer agents • Nine plant derived compounds have been approved for use as anticancer drugs ( INDIA) • Vinblastin • Vincristine • Etoposide • Teriposide • Taxol • Navelbine • Taxotere • Topotecan • Irinotecan

15. TRADITIONAL Plants Used For The Treatment Of Cancer 37 PLANTS Biological source & Family Local name Parts used Preparations Abrus precatorius Fabaceae Gunja Roots and leaves Leaves decoction, flowers internally and aqueous extract of roots in treatment of blood cancer Acacia nilotica Fabaceae Bambri, babul Stem and root barks Stem and root barks decoction and patients are advised to gargle with this decoction Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae Arusa Roots, leaves, flowers and stem Juice/extract given internally, plant is burnt and the patients are advised to inhale the fume Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bael Bark and flower The roots, leaves, bark and flowers decoction Alangium salviifolium Alangiaceae Ankol Roots, bark and fruits Bark decoction or boil the fresh bark in base oil to prepare special oil is considered beneficial for the cancerous wound, fruits for lung cancer

16. Albizia lebbeck Fabaceae Sirsa Flower and bark Flowers in form of aqueous extract applied externally and bark in the form of powder given internally Anthocephalus cadamba Rubiaceae Kadam Fruits and leaves Consuming Kadam fruits during growing season, dried leaves powders internally Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Kathal Seed, bark and roots Few pinches of root powder are given internally and the roots decoction Astercantha ongifolia Acanthaceae Mokhla Root Aqueous extract Balanites aegyptiaca Balanitaceae Hingot Bark and fruits Dried bark powder, fruits pulps for blood cancer Bambusa sp. Poaceae Bans Leaves, bark and seed Leaf juice and bark decoction internally, seeds with Shahad (Honey). Bauhinia variegata Fabaceae Son Patta Flower and leaves Flower given with cow milk, leaves decoction Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaceae Char Seed, bark and root Roots are used in form of dry powder, in form of decoction, bark powder with cow milk and honey

17. Butea monosperma Fabaceae Parsa Leaves and fruits Leaf juices & fruit powder. Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae Fudhar Root and latex Root decoction for lung cancer and roots are dipped in its latex, burnt and patients are advice to inhale it Cannabis sativa Cannabaceae Bhang Leaves The leaves are crushed and with the help of cow milk an aqueous paste is prepared. This paste is applied externally on the wound Cassia fistula Fabaceae Dhanbaher Leaves and fruits Leaf juice in treatment of cancerous wound, The fruit pulp is boiled in water to prepare concentrate decoction given internally Citrus medica Rutaceae Bijaura Fruit, seed, bark and root Dried fruits powder, root in the form of paste, bark in the form of decoction Coriandrum sativum Apiaceae Dhania Seed and whole herbs Boil the seed powder in water to prepare concentrate decoction. The patients are advised to gargle with this decoction, whole herb juice advised to take it internally Curcuma sp. Zingiberaceae Haldi Rhizome Both internally as well as externally in treatment of cancer

18. Datura species Solanaceae Dhatra Leaf and flower Dhatura leaf juice, opium and sonth (Dried Ginger) and in form of paste applied this combination on cancerous wound Diospyros elanoxylon Ebenaceae Tendu Fruits and bark Bark paste with cow milk Embelia ribes Euphorbiaceae Baibirang Leaves, Roots and fruits Leaves are used externally in form of decoction and paste Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae Aonla, amala Leaf, roots and bark Leaf juices, root boil in mustard oil for cancerous wound Euphorbia neriifolia Euphorbiaceae Thura Latex and leaves Fresh latex and leave extract Ficus benghalensis Moraceae , Bargad Bark, root and fresh latax Barks of Bar, Maharukh (Ailanthus excelsa) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) and prepare the combination, fresh latex internally Ficus glomerata Moraceae. Doomar Leaves, bark and roots Leaves juice bark juice, dried root powder given internally

19. Ficus religiosa Moraceae Pipal Leaves and fruits Leaf extract Gloriosa superba Colchicaceae Kalihari Bulb, leaves and seeds Freshly collected bulbs are crushed and added in mustard seed oil. The combination is boiled and when all watery contents evaporate the boiling is stopped and special oil is used after filtration. The special oil is considered beneficial for the cancerous wound, The leaves are given internally in form of juice Gmelina arborea Lamiaceae Khamhar Leaves and fruits Leaves juice, dried fruits powder Hibiscus rosasinensis Malvaceae Jason Flowers Dried flower powder Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Ama Leaves and inner bark The leaves of Arusa (Adhatoda vasica), Kukurmutta (Blumea lacera) and Chirchita (Achyranthes aspera) are mixed in equal proportion. The Ama leaves are taken in double amount of this combination and mixed thoroughly. The combination is burnt and the patients are advised to inhale the fumes for lung cancer

20. Melia azedarach Meliaceae Bakain Root, bark and fruits Dried root powder is given internally, inner bark and extract the juice given internally Moringa oleifera Moringaceae Munga Bark, flowers Bark decoction, dried flowers powder Mucuna pruriens Fabaceae Kevatch Root, seed and whole herbs Patients having mouth cancer to always put the freshly collected Kevatch root inside the mouth, seed powder useful in treatment of cancer pain Nerium odorum Apocynaceae Kaner Root and flowers Roots decoction is prepared. The patients are advised to wash the wound with the help of this decoction Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Oleaceae Harshringar Leaves and bark Dried bark powder given internally, leaves decoction Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae Tulsi Seed and leaves Decoction of seed and leaves internally

21. p p PIK3 AKT mTOR Ras BRAFMEK ERK 1,2 SOS CELL SURVIVAL/INHIBITION OF APOPTOSIS CELL PROLIFERATION Cancer cellsurvival and proliferationpathway TYROSINE KINASE SITE ACTIVATION EGF BINDING TO EGFR

22. p p PIK3 AKT mTOR Ras BRAFMEK ERK 1,2 SOS CELL Death/ APOPTOSIS Inhibitory mechanism of Tinosporin isolated from Tinopsora cardifolia EGF BINDING TO EGFR TYROSINE KINASE SITE INHIBITION TUMOR SUPPRESSION

23. Trypan blue assayLive malignant circulating cancer cells Before incubation After 4 hrs of incubation TINOSPORIN Overnight incubation with Tinosporin “Principle : Live cells reject dye and dead cells uptake dye “ Trypan blue Assay for anti cancer activity

24. Antibody Immuno assay for inhibition activity on different marker proteins of cancer cell

25. Dr. M.Hemanth Kumar Research Head of Patanjali Patanjali Food and Herbal Park Haridwar – Uttarakhand -249404 Email : phytochem2@gmail.com Phone : (+91-8126632797)

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