Can pluralistic approaches develop whole-brain learning? R. DAHM

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Education

Published on January 15, 2014

Author: rebeccadahm

Source: slideshare.net

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Language teaching should not only give learners opportunities to develop their proficiency in a second language but should also enable them to develop their cognitive skills. However, cognition is closely linked to affect, therefore seeking ways to develop whole-brain learning should accelerate and enrich our learning (Gross, 1992).
I hypothesize that the implementation of teaching methods based on the confrontation to unknown languages (pluralistic approaches as defined by Candelier et al., 2003) can have an impact on both individual and relational factors. Indeed, being confronted to unknown languages without a purpose of learning allows students to apprehend languages differently: language anxiety (Gardner and MacIntyre, 1993) can be reduced and students can be invited to review their attitudes (Lasagabaster, 2006). Because of the new class organisation related to the pluralistic approach we envisage, the teacher is led to review his beliefs (Puchta, 1999) and can thus become the facilitator of self-directed learning (Heron, 1989), encouraging the emotional dynamics of the groups.
This presentation will first address the above-mentioned concepts before approaching the mixed methodology used. Finally, specific examples will be examined so as to underline how pluralistic approaches can develop students’ self-esteem and contribute to whole-brain learning.

Can pluralistic approaches develop whole-brain learning? Rebecca DAHM ÉSPÉ – University of Limoges LACES – EA 4140, Bordeaux-Segalen - Bordeaux IV LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Pluralistic approaches of languages and cultures = didactic approaches which use teaching/learning activities involving several (i.e. more than one) varieties of languages or cultures (http://carap.ecml.at) LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Whole-brain learning •  Research underlines importance of connecting left hemisphere of brain (verbal, logical and analytical memory) to right hemisphere (spatial and intuitive processing) (Respress & Lutfi, 2006). •  AFFECT can interfere in the process of learning : enhance or sabotage ability of pre-frontal lobe to maintain working memory (Goleman, 1995). => « accelerate and enrich our learning, by engaging the senses, emotions, imagination » (Gross, 1992 : 139). LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Outline •  •  •  •  •  •  Research question and hypothesis Theoretical framework Research design Method of analysis Results Discussion LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Research   question  and   hypothesis  

Experimentation •  Led in 2011-2012 : showed that being confronted to Pluralistic Approaches based upon Unknown Languages (PAUL) develops students’ cognitive skills (enhanced strategy use and metalinguistic competence). LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Research question •  implementation of PAUL sessions can have an impact on both individual and relational affective factors (Arnold,1999). LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Impact on individual factors PAUL sessions : no learning goal. •  language anxiety (Gardner and MacIntyre, 1993) can be reduced. •  Students review their attitudes (Lasagabaster, 2006) •  Teacher is led to review his beliefs regarding students’ abilities (Puchta, 1999) LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Theoretical   framework  

Anxiety •  Specific anxiety related to learning a second language (Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, 1986; Rubio, 2004). •  Adolescent learners seek to transmit ‘mature ideas’ but can only resort to ‘immature’ language resources => impact self-esteem (Arnold, 2006). •  Anxiety can be reduced through teacher’s attitude (Dörnyei & Csizér,1998; K. Ellis, 2000) LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Effects of self-esteem on learning •  ‘Affective filter’ (Krashen, 1982): influence of negative emotions. •  Balanced self-esteem: competence and self-worth (Mruk, 1999). Responsibility of the individual but also of the social context. In classroom, self-esteem and confidence can be encouraged by teacher’s attitude. LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Impact of teacher’s beliefs on learning/teaching Puchta (1999): negative beliefs of teachers determine students' expectations. -  If expectations are limited, lower level of motivation = confirmation of initial beliefs. -  Need to work on current beliefs of teachers LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Research  Design  

Mixed methodology Knowledge Teacher Learner Didactic triangle (Chevallard, 1985) •  Impact on teacher/teaching: action-research •  Impact on learner/learning: quasi-experiment Both qualitative and quantitative data LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Participants •  Teachers: N=9 •  Lower secondary school pupils, two target groups: •  students from year 7 (12-13 year-old) •  students from year 9 (14-15 year-old) •  Observed students: N = 88 students from year 7 (22 groups) LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Procedure •  Three unknown languages: Dutch, Italian, Finnish •  Two types of activities: Ø  metasemantic activities Ø  metasyntactic activities •  Same model: give systematicity to a regular exercise LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Corpus •  Qualitative data (Nvivo): –  Excerpts from 4 different teacher questionnaires –  Excerpts from the transcripts of the action-research workshops –  Excerpts from –  Excerpts from post-experimentation pupil questionnaires •  Quantitative data (ModaLisa): analysis of pupil questionnaire LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Analysis  

Variables and indicators •  Teachers’ beliefs about students: vision of students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes (questionnaire 3 + transcripts of workshops 1 and 2 + forum messages) •  Students’ beliefs: –  Beliefs about unknown languages (analysis of transcript of metasemantic and metasyntactic activities) –  Beliefs regarding own abilities QII-5 and QII-6 : “Have you improved your ability to find new information in a text?” “Have you improved your ability to identify grammar elements?” •  Self-esteem: student questionnaire Q III-10: “Do you feel more intelligent?” LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Results  

Individual factors (teachers)

Impact on teacher’s way of considering students (1/3) Preconceptions regarding students’ knowledge: –  P2 believes students will not have the same knowledge on unknown languages as teachers had (excerpt 1). Excerpt 1 –  P9 believes that because of lack of multilingual repertoire comprising Spanish, students will not be able to access meaning (excerpt 1). Excerpt 2 LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Impact on teacher’s way of considering students (2/3) •  Preconceptions regarding students’ skills: –  P1 considers it necessary to attract attention of students on instruction –  P2 believes students will not comply with instruction Excerpt 3 LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Impact on teacher’s way of considering students (3/3) •  Preconceptions regarding students’ attitudes: –  P4 believes students will not feel like trying to retrieve their metalinguistic knowledge. They might reject it as an additional learning task (excerpt 4). Excerpt 4 LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Evolution of teacher’s way of considering students (1/2) •  Only when working on third language (Finnish), does P4 seem to believe in the students’ abilities to access meaning in an unknown language (excerpt 5 from Forum): Excerpt 5 LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Evolution of teacher’s way of considering students (2/2) •  Teacher final questionnaire shows amazement regarding pupils’ general abilities: –  P1: « fascinantes, surtout celles des élèves en difficulté » –  P2 : « surprenantes et enrichissantes » •  Some view certain students differently: –  P3 states the impact on their self-confidence: « cette expérimentation a permis à certains élèves d’avoir plus confiance en eux car ils faisaient des remarques judicieuses (qui les surprenaient eux-mêmes), ils ont découvert que faire travailler son cerveau pouvait être intéressant ». –  P1 underlines the impact on her vision of pupils with learning difficulties : « à quel point des élèves en difficulté pouvaient retrouver le sourire et le goût quand ils se sentaient en réussite ». LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Individual factors (students)

Students’ beliefs (1/2) –  Beliefs regarding own abilities QII-5 : “Have you improved your ability to find information in an unknown text?” LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Students’ beliefs (2/2) –  Beliefs regarding own abilities (QII-6) : “Have you improved your ability to identify grammar elements?” LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Anxiety and self-esteem •  Development of metalinguistic competence (shown in previous research), thus leading to an increase of self-esteem •  Student questionnaire Q III-10: “Do you feel more intelligent?” LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Attitudes towards languages •  Transfer of skills to other languages and situations: –  « Quand je suis partie en vacance j'ai pris un texte dans l'aéroport et j'ai essayé de le traduire ». –  « Sur les bouteilles d’eau, avec le texte en français et la traduction dans une autre langue ». •  Curiosity towards other languages: 24 other languages.

Conclusion  

Impact on teachers •  Implementing Pluralistic Approaches based upon Unknown Languages has enabled teachers of English to consider students' abilities otherwise. •  Benefits are not only cognitive but also related to affect: students can adopt new role •  Renewal and modification of teacher-student relationship.

Impact on students •  Developed self-esteem •  Changed their attitude regarding the language object. •  Developed interest in learning how to learn •  Increased curiosity: students report having used the methodology in another context. They also would like to discover a large number of additional languages.

•  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  References Candelier, M. (2003). L’éveil aux langues à l’école primaire. Evlang  : bilan d’une innovation européenne. Bruxelles: De Boeck. Deyrich, M.-C. (2011). Exploration de la notion d’altérité dans la formation des enseignants de langues   : pour une résonance des points de vue et des démarches. In Chini, D. et Goutéreaux, P. Intégration de l’altérité dans l’apprentissage des langues: Formes didactiques et procédures psycholinguistiques. Paris: L’Harmattan. Díaz-Corralejo Conde, J. (2004). De l’étrangeté à la complicité. Didáctica (Lengua y literatura), (16), 23–32. Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gross, R. (1992). Lifelong learning in the learning society of the twenty-first century. In In Collins, C. & Mangieri, J. (Eds.), Teaching Thinking: An Agenda for the Twenty-First Century (p. 137-154). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. Guiora, A. Z., & Acton, W. R. (1979). Personality and language behaviour  : a restatement. Language Learning, 29(1), 193-204. Gutiérrez, X. (2011). Knowledge representations underlying covert metalinguistic activity: a working hypothesis. Language Awareness, 20(3), 239-254. Lasagabaster, D. (2006). Les attitudes linguistiques   : un état des lieux. Ela. Études de linguistique appliquée., 2006/4(144), 393-406. Mruk, C. J. (1999). Self-esteem: Research, theory, and practice. New York: Springer Pub. Naiman, N. (1978). The Good Language Learner. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and Researching Language Learning Strategies. Harlow: Pearson education. Puchta, H. (1999). Creating a learning culture to which students want to belong   : the application of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to language teaching. In In Arnold, J. (ed.), Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Underhill, A. (1999). Facilitation in language teaching. In In Arnold, J. (ed.), Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 31

Thank you for your attention ! rebecca.dahm@unilim.fr LAIRDIL international conference “ Affective aspects in foreign language teaching and learning “ Toulouse, October 17th-18th, 2013

Video of first session on Dutch

Text in Dutch

Text in Italian « Sono un topo molto famoso. Io sono piccolo, con grandi orecchie nere. Indosso pantaloni rossi con grandi bottoni bianchi. I miei migliori amici sono Paperino e Pippo e la mia bella ragazza di nome Minnie. Mio padre è molto famoso: il suo nome è Walt Disney!
 Chi sono io? »

Text in Finnish Päivi: " Rakastatko musiikkia? 
 Timo: "Kyllä, minä rakastan. Lataan paljon musiikkia Internetistä. 
 Päivi: Soitatko musiikkia? 
 Timo: "Kyllä, minä soitan. Soitan pianoa. Sisareni Eija ei soita pianoa, mutta hän soittaa kitaraa. Entä sisaresi Nina? 
 Päivi: Sisareni Nina rakastaa rap-musiikkia. Rakastaako sisaresi Eija myös rap-musiikkia? 
 Timo: Ei, hän ei rakasta.

Example of a group sheet in Dutch

Example of a group sheet in Italian

Example of a group sheet in Finnish

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