Campbell Ch 13 part 1

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Information about Campbell Ch 13 part 1
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Published on March 11, 2008

Author: Sibilla

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CHAPTER 13:  CHAPTER 13 How Populations Evolve Figures 13.1 – 13.5 Slide2:  All humans are connected by descent from African ancestors The same types of bones make up the forelimbs of humans, cats, whales, and bats Slide3:  Figure 13.1 Insecticide application Chromosome with gene conferring resistance to insecticide Survivors Additional applications of the same insecticide will be less effective, and the frequency of resistant insects in the population will grow CHARLES DARWIN AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES:  Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection CHARLES DARWIN AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES Was published on November 24, 1859 Focused biologists’ attention on the great diversity of organisms Slide5:  The basic idea of natural selection is that: Slide6:  What do these pictures represent? Figure 13.2 (a) A flower mantid in Malaysia (b) A Trinidad tree mantid that mimics dead leaves (c) A leaf mantid in Costa Rica Darwin’s Cultural and Scientific Context:  The Origin of Species Darwin’s Cultural and Scientific Context Challenged the notion that the Earth was relatively young and populated by unrelated species The Idea of Fixed Species:  The Greek philosopher Aristotle held the belief that: The Idea of Fixed Species The Judeo-Christian culture fortified this idea and suggested that the Earth is only about: Lamarck and Adaptive Evolution:  In the mid-1700s, the study of fossils began to take form as a branch of science Lamarck and Adaptive Evolution Naturalist Georges Buffon: Slide10:  Jean Baptiste Lamarck Suggested that organisms evolved by the process of adaptation Also suggested: The Voyage of the Beagle:  In December 1831, Darwin left Great Britain on the HMS Beagle to explore the world The Voyage of the Beagle Figure 13.3 North America Great Britain Europe PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN Galápagos Islands South America Africa Equator Australia Andes Cape Horn Tierra del Fuego Cape of Good Hope Tasmania New Zealand Slide12:  What did Darwin do during the trip Of the Beagle? Slide13:  What intrigued Darwin about the Galapagos islands? Figure 13.4 Slide14:  Darwin was strongly influenced by the writings of geologist Charles Lyell Who was Charles Lyell? Darwin reasoned that: Descent with Modification:  Darwin made two main points in The Origin of Species Descent with Modification 1. 2. Slide16:  Today 10,000 years ago 2 million years ago 5.5 million years ago 24 million years ago 34 million years ago Moeri-therium Bary-therium Deinotherium Mammut (mastodon) Platybelodon Stegodon Elephas maximus (Asian elephant) Mammuthus (mammoth) Loxodonta africana (African savannah elephant) Loxodonta cyclotis (African forest elephant) Figure 13.5 EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION:  Biological evolution has left marks of evidence EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION The Fossil Record:  Fossils The Fossil Record What is a fossil? What types of rocks are fossils usually found in, and what does this say about their age? Slide19:  Figure 13.6 Rivers bring sediment to the ocean. Sedimentary rocks containing fossils form on the ocean floor. 1 2 3 Over time, additional strata are added, containing fossils from each time period. As sea levels change and the seafloor is pushed upward, sedimentary rocks are exposed. Erosion by rivers reveals strata; deeper strata contain older fossils. Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils Slide20:  The fossil record Is the chronology of fossil appearances in rock layers What is the significance of organisms found in these rocks? Figure 13.7 Slide21:  Paleontologists Are scientists that study _____________ Have discovered many transitional forms that link past and present Slide22:  Figure 13.8 Biogeography:  Biogeography Biogeography Is the study of the geographic distribution of species First suggested to Darwin that today’s organisms evolved from ancestral forms Slide24:  Many examples from biogeography support evolutionary theory Slide25:  Figure 13.9 Koala Australia Kangaroo Comparative Anatomy:  Comparative anatomy Comparative Anatomy What exactly is comparative anatomy? How does the study of comparative anatomy Contribute to our knowledge of the origin of species? Slide27:  Homology What does this mean? Slide28:  Figure 13.10 Human Cat Whale Bat Comparative Embryology:  Comparative Embryology is the comparison of structures that appear during the development of different organisms Comparative Embryology Comparative embryology of vertebrates supports evolutionary theory Slide30:  Figure 13.11 (a) Chick embryo Gill pouches Post-anal tail (b) Human embryo Molecular Biology:  Evolutionary relationships among species Molecular Biology Leave signs in DNA and proteins Can be determined by comparing genes and proteins of different organisms Slide32:  Figure 13.12 Old World monkey Gibbon Orangutan Gorilla Human Chimpanzee NATURAL SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION:  Darwin’s finches NATURAL SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION Are an excellent example of natural selection and adaptive evolution Figure 13.13 (a) Large ground finch (b) Small tree finch (c) Woodpecker finch Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection:  Darwin based his theory of natural selection on two key observations Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection Slide35:  Observation 1: Figure 13.14 Slide36:  Observation 2: Figure 13.15 Slide37:  Inference: Differential reproductive success

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