Published on February 25, 2014
Fundamentals of Photography:! Camera Settings!
Aperture! !" !" aperture: the opening in a camera lens through which light passes! f-stop: a number used to indicate the size of an aperture! Source: Communication: Journalism Education Today!
Depth of field! !" depth of ﬁeld: the area in front of and behind a subject that is shown in focus; the distance between the element in a photo closest to the camera and the element furthest from the camera that appear in acceptable focus!
Depth of field, cont.! High depth of ﬁeld = everything is in focus! Source: Kara Blue! !"
Depth of field, cont. Low depth of ﬁeld = subject is in focus! Source: Kara Blue! !"
Influences on the depth of field! !" Proximity to the subject! !" The closer the photographer is to the subject, the lower the depth of ﬁeld! !" Focal length of lens! !" The longer the lens, the lower the depth of ﬁeld! !" For example, a 200mm lens will have a lower depth of ﬁeld than a 50mm lens!
Shutter speed! !" shutter speed: a measurement of how long the shutter will remain open, allowing the light sensitive sensors to be exposed to light; measured in a fraction of a second! Source: Communication: Journalism Education Today
Shutter speed, cont.! Slow shutter speeds can be used to bring an artistic impression to fast-moving action! Source: Sara Heinrichs,! saraheinrichs.com! !" 20 second exposure!
Shutter speed, cont. Photojournalists usually use faster shutter speeds to stop the action! Source: Rosi Simmons! !" 1/1,250!
Shutter speed guidelines! !" 1/60 is fast enough to capture a person walking slowly! !" 1/250 = a person jogging! !" 1/500 = a person running! !" 1/1000+ = anything that moves faster, horses, cars, etc.!
Exposure! !" exposure: a combination of aperture and shutter speed that determines how much light reaches the light sensitive sensors!
Overexposure! An exposure that allows more than the required amount of light, causing a loss of detail in the highlight areas of the photo! !" Has a white out effect! !" Source: Kara Blue!
Underexposure An exposure which allows less than the required amount of light, causing a loss of detail in the shadow areas! !" Has a black out effect! !" Source: Kara Blue!
Source: Darren Rowse,! digital-photography-school.com! ISO/Film Speed! !" !" !" 100 ISO! 3200 ISO! ISO: a number assigned to indicate the image sensor s relative sensitivity to light! the higher the number, the more sensitive the sensor is to light—and shows more noise/grain! The ISO range is from 100 to 1600 on our cameras!
Choosing the ISO! !" !" To choose the ISO setting, ask these questions:! 1." Light – Is the subject well lit?! 2." Grain – Do I want a grainy shot or one without noise?! 3." Tripod – Am I using a tripod?! 4." Moving Subject – Is my subject moving or stationary?! Use a low ISO (around 100+) if there is plenty of light, you want little noise in the image, you re using a tripod and your subject isn t moving.! Source: digital-photography-school.com!
ISO/film speed, cont. !" The brighter the day, the lower the ISO/ noise! !" Overcast = 400-800 ISO! !" Darkness = 1600 ISO! !" Sports – higher ISO for motion! !" 125-500 to follow the athlete!
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