Published on January 20, 2008
Camalie VineyardsCase Study in Crossbow Mote Deployment. : Camalie Vineyards Case Study in Crossbow Mote Deployment. Mark Holler Napa & Palo Alto, Ca. 4/11/06 http://camalie.com firstname.lastname@example.org 650-799-6571 Copyright 2006 Camalie Vineyards, Not to be reproduced without written permission Background: Background Camalie Vineyards is a 4.4 acre hillside vineyard on the western slopes of Napa Valley: Mt Veeder Highly varied soil, slope, sun exposure, and water flow, At least 12 distinct areas. World class Cabernet Sauvignon grapes; $5K/ton French clones 337, 338, 191 on rootstocks selected to compensate for varying vigor across vineyard areas. Water is scarce, most wells and reservoirs are dry by the end of the growing season. 60 gal/vine/yr. 300K gal. Water in the Vineyard: Water in the Vineyard Initial Installation 2005 growing season: Initial Installation 2005 growing season Monitor water getting to the vines and the irrigation system getting it there. 1 mote with 3 sensors in each of 4 irrigation blocks 2 pressure sensors at irrigation manifold, pre filter and post filter. Monitor tank level and filter status. . 2003-2004 used weather station with 3 soil moisture sensors at one location Vineyard Installation: Vineyard Installation At each Mote location: 2 soil moisture sensors 12” and 24” depth 1 soil temp sensor to calibrate soil moisture sensors Irrigation Manifold: Irrigation Manifold Vineyard Mote Prototype: Vineyard Mote Prototype 433MHz Mica2dot Solar power supply Up to 6 resistive sensor inputs Power Supply : Power Supply 2 month max battery life now with 10 minute sampling interval Decided to use solar power, always there when doing irrigation. Solar cell $10 in small quantities though and need a $.50 regulator. Network Maps: Network Maps Irrigation Block Map 13 nodes late 05, Now 18 nodes Soil Moisture Data: Soil Moisture Data Red = 12” depth soil moisture Green= 24” depth soil moisture Note delay deeper More frequent, shorter watering keeps water shallow Irrigation Pressure Sensors: Irrigation Pressure Sensors Temp Data: Temp Data ROI Rationale: ROI Rationale Insurance Policy for vine health Pumping Energy Savings Conserve water for late season hot spells. Better Ripeness Uniformity Intangibles/ Wine Quality Improvement Deficit irrigation; less water > better quality but more risk Yield enhancement Napa Vineyard Investment *: Napa Vineyard Investment * $40K/acre to replant: stakes, wires, endposts Labor, tractor, mower, sprayer. 3 years management before first yield; $36k/acre Irrigation System ~ $5K/acre Wireless Soil Moisture sensor network @ 4 nodes(12 soil moistures)/acre =$1000/acre Total Investment to first grapes: $82K/acre * For vineyard ~5 acres Annual Budget: Annual Budget Annual Expenses: Management $8k/acre + $300/acre pumping cost +$5.4K/yr. Depr(15yr.) Total $13.7K/acre/year. $66/acre/year for wireless sensor network (Small .5%) Software Development: Software Development Worked through all examples in Getting Started and Tutorial. Good place to start. Learned about TinyOS, nesc from UCB docs, Documentation is good but, somewhat heterogeneous. Good phone tech support. Use the Source, code is small and is mostly C Modified MDA500 sensor board code and integrated it with one of the lower power mesh network protocols provided. Moteview, Postgresql: Moteview, Postgresql Moteview is a good app. The UI is right and it has all the essential features needed. However, Moteview is a client app for PostgreSQL which makes remote connections difficult. Performance is poor when data base gets large, ~100MB 10 seconds – 10 minute to display a graph on a 2GHz Pentium 4. Would like to have: Would like to have Faster Moteview/Postgresql solution Linux + Apache + WebGraph package + data base. Seems logical. Catalog of the Mesh Networking Code modules with data sheets. Power consumption, sampling rate, error rate, etc. Inexpensive Mica2dot module. The socket board costs $28.00. Other ideas: Other ideas Deer monitoring, Open Gates, Easement traffic. Wine storage temp Wine Making, Temps, CO2 level, flow Irrigation Control, remote valves. Green Home Monitoring; septic, heating Sensors embedded in the vines. Conclusions: Conclusions Cost of wireless sensor network is small for a high value crop like Napa Grapes. WSN greatly improves visibility of soil moisture levels, the most important parameter in growing. Crossbow mote hardware is robust. Tools are adequate, inexpensive. Expect an embedded design cycle:1yr. Useful prototype and data within 6 months. Infrastructure for web serving WSN data is oddly missing. Should bundle a server with motes in the design kit. Linux servers now cost $149.00 at Frys! Stargate costs $595 and has no disk.