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Calhoon Revised Instructional Considerations

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Information about Calhoon Revised Instructional Considerations
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Published on August 30, 2007

Author: BAWare

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Posted with the permission of Dr. Ann Calhoon:  Posted with the permission of Dr. Ann Calhoon All rights reserved by Dr. A. Calhoon Instructional Considerations for Students from Marginalized Communities:  Instructional Considerations for Students from Marginalized Communities What are marginalized communities?:  What are marginalized communities? Communities where the primary language spoken is not English (Spanish, Indigenous, ASL). Communities where the cultural norms are not Euro-American. Communities whose worldviews differ from the Euro-American worldview. Communities where communication and mobility are different from communities where talking and walking are common. Communities where spirituality is not based on Judeo-Christian concepts. Communities that are ostracized by the power majority within a political system (i.e., foster children; homeless children). RESPECT:  RESPECT Relationship-building Environment of the classroom Students as colleagues not competitors Patience, people, partnerships and plain talk Emotion = Passion for the content Context in which students are psychologically and cognitively safe. Teaching as healing American Indians/Alaskan Natives:  American Indians/Alaskan Natives Traditional Educational Framework Metaphorical Minds: Constructing Knowledge One Model of American Indian Learning The Impossible Conundrums of Western Metaphysics Traditional Educational Framework:  Traditional Educational Framework Observation by elders of children’s natural skills and interests. Identification of a match between future learner and tribal member who works in the learner’s interest area. Approaching and negotiating with the identified tribal member (or vice-versa) to take on the learner as an apprentice. Use of shadowing, mentoring, and living with the 'expert' by the 'novice' or 'apprentice.' Use of ritual as forms of assessment and recognition of standards. Traditional Educational Framework:  Traditional Educational Framework Formation of strong teacher-learner emotional bond motivates learning and supports hard work. Learning paired with living helps student(s) understand that their work is the People’s Life. Created a climate in which students clearly understood the importance of their learning and future work. Apprenticeships and living units created strong bonds between students. Ritual as assessment was the public understanding that students had reached specific standards on their way to providing for the community. Metaphorical Minds: Constructing Knowledge :  Metaphorical Minds: Constructing Knowledge 'Metaphor as a mental model provides a means for individuals and, ultimately, organizations to create and share understanding. This mental model establishes images, names and an understanding of how things fit together. Metaphor articulates what is important and unimportant ...the model must be articulated and accepted in the organization for it to be effective ... In the context of this model believing is seeing.' (Hill and Levenhagen, 1995). Slide9:  Lakoff and Johnson (1995) argue that 'many of our activities (arguing, solving problems, budgeting time, etc.) are metaphorical in nature. These metaphorical concepts that characterize those activities structure our present reality. New metaphors have the power to create a new reality. 'The meanings that we give to ourselves, our products, our competitors, our customers, and all the relevant others in our world determine the space of our possible actions --and, to a large extent, how we act' (Lane and Maxfield, 1995). Slide10:  'Native people believe(d) they learn through contact or direct experience rather than through abstraction' (Cajete, 2002) 'People need to discover, or rediscover, their own creative abilities (by)…. Regaining openness and following intuition, Relearning to think in metaphors (i.e. symbols and images) rather than analogies. The Impossible Conundrums of Western Metaphysics:  The Impossible Conundrums of Western Metaphysics Western metaphysics fails to produce an integral person, i.e. the compartmental nature of western educational thought does not allow learners and teachers to have a view of the 'whole student' that is agreed upon by a consensus of disciplines (Waters,2002). Western thought places concepts and foundational beliefs in juxtaposition to one another, i.e., one cannot be a teacher whose methodology includes both the teaching of phonics and the teaching of whole language approaches (Waters, 2002). The Impossible Conundrums of Western Metaphysics:  The Impossible Conundrums of Western Metaphysics Western thought (dualism) views the tangible world as being without spirit making the destruction of the 'things' of this world more easily accomplished and the destruction more easily justified. Western educational philosophy focuses on 'I' as the center of importance rather than 'society' or 'we' as the outcome of education. Resources: Deloria andamp; Wildcat (2001). Power and place: Indian education in America Joseph Keating: Factors that Affect the Success of American Indian High School Students in Science :  Joseph Keating: Factors that Affect the Success of American Indian High School Students in Science factors were categorized into three major areas: the degree of traditionalism of the individual student; language impediments to the learning of the technical language of science and mathematics cultural taboos related to specific scientific activities (b) the socio-economic background of the students. - income disparity and poverty Joseph Keating: Factors that Affect the Success of American Indian High School Students in Science :  Joseph Keating: Factors that Affect the Success of American Indian High School Students in Science factors were categorized into three major areas: (c) the school environment; and - the tremendous cultural wealth of American Indians can be strongly linked to science programs as a resource. - linkage of the curriculum to the community will provide a basis of support and encouragement for the students - shortage of mentors and role models: many students have not received encouragement or opportunities to excel in traditional western careers - teacher expectations that have been less than positive with regard to the success of students. Keating: Recommendations for Teachers:  Keating: Recommendations for Teachers develop a knowledge base about the various cultures (including languages) of students, and incorporate this cultural knowledge into teaching strategies and curriculum. understand the cultural traditions of students, especially in areas that may cause students to have restricted positive experiences (reading). have an appreciation of the learning styles and strengths of their students, particularly those whose backgrounds differ from the mainstream. teachers should closely monitor their own spoken and unspoken expectations. they should extend their own education and understandings so that they may meet the needs of and encourage all students in traditional fields of study. Keating: Recommendations for Teachers:  Keating: Recommendations for Teachers parents and the community need to be invited to events and studies to produce an enriched curriculum that is reflective of the students' experiences, culture and language . corresponding assessment practices will be appropriately linked to contexts within the culture providing a greater potential for successfully revealing what students do not know. Michael Kunzelman (2005). American Indian students head to Harvard to pursue college dreams.:  Michael Kunzelman (2005). American Indian students head to Harvard to pursue college dreams. American Indians drop out at higher rates than other students. Half of all students entering college will earn a degree within five years but only about 4 % of the American Indians who enter college end up graduating with a bachelor's degree Entering students are leery of running into students with stereotypes about American Indians It is a 'major misconception' that many American Indian parents are reluctant to see their children leave home to for college. Many tribes also offer financial incentives for students to pursue a degree. Tribes see their students as an investment, and they want a return on their investment. Slide18:  Jamie Merisotis, Thomas Wolanin, Erin Renner. (2006)Higher Education Opportunities for Foster Youth, a report by The Institute for Higher Education Policy :  Jamie Merisotis, Thomas Wolanin, Erin Renner. (2006) Higher Education Opportunities for Foster Youth, a report by The Institute for Higher Education Policy only 10% of youths between 18 and 25 who have had significant experience within the foster care system participate in formal trade or collegiate education after leaving high school. Completion rates are abysmal; only one-to-five of every 100 foster youths who enter a four-year program earns a degree. Reasons for the Gap :  Reasons for the Gap American Indian children are fostered/adopted out to non-American Indian families at rates higher than any other ethnic group (Newman, 2004). All children in foster care undergo two traumas: they were neglected or abused by their family and removed from their home and parents by strange adults. Third trauma: abuse and neglect in the foster care system. For most children the process of separation and readjustment is repeated frequently. Highly mobile children have higher rates of tardiness, absence, truancy, suspensions, expulsions, course failures, and assignment to 'alternative' or 'continuing' schools with undemanding curricula that leave students unprepared for higher education (Merisotis, Wolanin, andamp; Renner, 2006). Slide21:  All Students Come to Your Classes Unprepared by High School and Life:  All Students Come to Your Classes Unprepared by High School and Life Accepting this as fact is a first step Identify the various student assistance components within your college/university (American Indian/Black/Hispanic social and academic resources, tutoring, health, disability, jobs) and list these in your syllabi with contact information. Recognize that, to some degree, you will need to be both a reading and writing teacher as well as a mentor of social and cultural capital for first generation students. Design your courses to include 'hints' and 'practice' in academic reading and writing. Study Skills Survival List: Address this in your syllabi:  Study Skills Survival List: Address this in your syllabi In class, sit in the front. Go to instructors office hours even if it’s only to introduce yourself. Ask questions about assignments during office hours or by e-mail. Review every test, paper, etc for grading errors and then discuss problems immediately. Alert the instructor if you are going to miss a class or meeting. Don’t expect instructors to make special rules for you. Don’t turn in assignments late. Develop skills for handling test anxiety. Everyday Activity:  Everyday Activity Relaxation is something enjoyable - experiencing a peace of mind and satisfaction. Remember, relaxation is not competition or striving to be the best. Forget about always winning and counting on being first. Reading - Writing Advice:  Reading - Writing Advice Go to the University’s tutoring services and pick up materials on reading and writing skills. Include some of the more generic ideas in a section of your syllabi. In class, model the way you read difficult text and do your thinking 'outloud.' If at all possible, become an on-line editor or have your TAs become on-line editors but monitor their work. Tell students that they can have editing help if they can get their major assignment to you or a TA at least ____(days/weeks) before it’s due. Reading-Writing Advice:  Reading-Writing Advice First day of class, take a book walk through the materials and discuss how each section is relevant to the course. Ask students to form small discussion groups and spend 15-20 minutes having them identify areas of content about which they are concerned. Address there concerns as best you can. Throughout the semester Intermittently ask your students to do a 2-3 minute free write and ask them 'What was the most difficult thing to understand today in class?' 'What did you find easy to understand?' Consider keeping a teaching journal and encourage/ require students to keep a learning journal. Reading - Writing Advice:  Reading - Writing Advice Be sure to maintain multi-modality, multi-cultural, and multi-level instruction in each class. (use multimedia if possible). Periodically e-mail students who appear to become 'invisible' (sit silently in class in the back row or just go missing) to remind them of your office hours if they want to talk. Have students form study groups and require those groups to meet regularly and keep a log of material covered. Groups will hopefully not divide along ethnic lines, but if they do, you need to arrange to have cross-ethnic group work within the class period and to oversee interactions. Visual-Auditory Example: Plasia:  Visual-Auditory Example: Plasia Cataplasia: A degenerative change in cells or tissues that is the reverse of the constructive or developmental change; a return to an earlier or embryonic stage. Fibrodysplasia: Abnormal development of fibrous connective tissue. Heterometaplasia: Tissue transformation resulting in production of a tissue foreign to the part where it is produced. Slide29:  Wa’doMiigwech Ahéhee' Akvsv'mkv Niawen Wanìshi Qujanaq Da-wah-eh Pilamaya yelo (male speaker)Kwakwhá Pilamaya ye (female speakerAskwali http://www.elite.net/~runner/jennifers/thankyou.htm#Kanienkehaka:  Wa’do Miigwech Ahéhee' Akvsv'mkv Niawen Wanìshi Qujanaq Da-wah-eh Pilamaya yelo (male speaker) Kwakwhá Pilamaya ye (female speaker Askwali http://www.elite.net/~runner/jennifers/thankyou.htm#Kanienkehaka http://www.elite.net/~runner/jennifers/thankyou.htm#Kanienkehaka

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