Published on November 3, 2014
1. Kamal Mohamed Okasha MD Prof of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Tanta University, Fellow of nephrology and Renal Tx, Sask University, Canada
2. Agenda Overview. Mechanisms of vascular calcification. Factors involved in vascular calcification. Inducers of vascular calcification. Calcification Inhibitors. Therapeutic Potentials. Conclusion.
3. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with CKD. Vascular calcification (VC) is highly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and linked to ageing, diabetes and CKD. The prevalence of VC increases steadily through the stages of CKD peaking in CKD stage 5D patients. Temmar M, Liabeuf S, Renard C et al. Pulse wave velocity and vascular calcification at different stages of chronic kidney disease. J Hypertens 2010; 28: 163–169 Overview
4. The KDIGO international clinical practice guideline suggests that CKD Stage 3–5D patients with known vascular/valvular calcification (VC) need to ‘be considered as having the highest possible cardiovascular risk’. Precipitation of calcium salts in the vessel wall and biologic events at the cell level lead to vessel ossification Demer LL, Tintut Y. Vascular calcification: pathobiology of a multifaceted disease. Circulation 2008; 117: 2938–2948 Overview
5. Overview calcific uremic arteriolopathy calcific Aortic valve
6. Overview Aortic Calcifications Digital Arteries Calcification
7. Overview Types of Vascular Calcifications in CKD
8. Ectopic Osteogenesis. Elastin Degradation. Mechanisms of Vascular Calcification
9. Mechanisms of vascular calcification
10. Factors involved in vascular calcification
11. Inducers of vascular calcification
12. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
13. 1. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) FGF23, a phosphaturic hormone produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes, and the associated co-receptor, Klotho, form a complex which is a major regulator of mineral metabolism. Abrogation of the FGF23 gene in the FGF23 null mice produces a phenotype characterized by hyperphosphataemia, high 1.25 (OH)2 vitamin D and excessive calcification in the abdominal aorta. Stubbs J, Liu S, Quarles LD. Role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in phosphate homeostasis and pathogenesis of disordered mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial 2007; 20: 302–308 Calcification Inhibitors
14. 1. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) In patients at Stage 5D, the plasma concentration of FG23 is at least 20 times higher than the upper limit of the normal range in healthy individuals. Elevated FGF23 is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease in patients with relatively preserved kidney function and for mortality across the spectrum of CKD. Isakova T, Xie H, Yang Wet al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and risks of mortality and end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. JAMA 2011; 305: 2432–2439 Calcification Inhibitors
15. 1. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) This increase of FGF23 in CKD, particularly in Stage 5D, mainly reflects augmented synthesis of the agonist in the presence of resistance at the receptor level because Stage 5D is a condition of profound Klotho deficiency. Circulating FGF23 in CKD Stage 5D patients has been associated with the severity and progression of aortic calcification and peripheral arterial calcification. Tamei N, Ogawa T, Ishida H et al. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 levels and progression of aortic arch calcification in non-diabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Atheroscler Thromb 2011; 18: 217–223 Calcification Inhibitors
16. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
17. 2. Osteopontin (OPN) In gene-knockout models, OPN deficiency leads to a much greater propensity to mineralize subcutaneously implanted glutaraldehyde-fixed aortic valve leaflets. Studies in patients with coronary heart disease showed that overexpression of OPN associates in a direct fashion with the presence and extent of atherosclerotic plaques and with calcified lesions in the aorta. OPN was an independent direct correlate of mitral annular calcification and aortic valve sclerosis in 120 stable angina patients. Abdel-Azeez HA, Al-Zaky M. Plasma osteopontin as a predictor of coronary artery disease: association with echocardiographic characteristics of atherosclerosis. J Clin Lab Anal 2010; 24: 201–206 Calcification Inhibitors
18. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
19. 3. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) OPG is a soluble protein of the TNF receptor superfamily and is classified as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor. Endogenous OPG promotes mineralization in skeletal bone but prevents mineralization in vascular tissues. OPG is a decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) a fundamental mediator of osteoblast maturation. Baud’huin M, Duplomb L, Ruiz Velasco C et al. Key roles of the OPG-RANK-RANKL system in bone oncology. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2007; 7: 221–232 Calcification Inhibitors
20. 3. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Accordingly, neutralization of RANKL by OPG impairs osteoclastogenesis at both the bone and vascular levels. In vivo, OPG-deficient mice exhibit medial calcification of the aorta and renal arteries. It should be noted that despite its biological ability of anticalcification, elevation of serum OPG was associated with advanced vascular calcification. Ozkok A, Caliskan Y, Sakaci T et al. Osteoprotegerin/RANKL axis and progression of coronary artery calcification in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012; 7: 965–973 Calcification Inhibitors
21. 3. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Independent positive associations between OPG and CAC in CKD patients and between OPG and aortic calcification and progression of CAC in haemodialysis patients have been reported. An incomplete compensatory response is considered to explain this discrepancy. Demer LL, Tintut Y: Vascular calcification: pathobiology of a multifaceted disease. Circulation 2008; 117: 2938–2948. Calcification Inhibitors
22. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
23. 4. Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) MGP is a protein produced by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. It acts as a calcification inhibitor—probably by directly inhibiting calcium precipitation and crystallization. Mice lacking MGP show intense medial calcification and die prematurely from spontaneous rupture of the calcified vasculature. Luo G, Ducy P, McKee MD et al. Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix GLA protein. Nature 1997; 386: 78–81 Calcification Inhibitors
24. 4. Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Gamma-carboxylation by a vitamin K-dependent reaction is a fundamental step for the activation MGP and for this protein inhibiting the calcification process. Therapeutic potential: interference with vitamin K compounds appears to be a promising intervention to limit VC. Supplementation with vitamin K1 for 3 years halted the progression of coronary arterial calcification in a study in healthy, elderly adults. Shea MK, O’Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U et al. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1799–1807 Calcification Inhibitors
25. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
26. 5. fetuin-A Fetuin-A is an abundant serum glycoprotein produced in the liver. When taken up by vascular smooth muscle cells, fetuin-A reduces the calcification of matrix vesicles. The relevance of fetuin-A as a calcification inhibitor is epitomized by the observation that fetuin-knockout mice develop extensive ectopic calcification when fed a phosphorus- and vitamin D- enriched diet. Chen NX, O’Neill KD, Chen X et al. Fetuin-A uptake in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells is calcium dependent and mediated by annexins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007; 292: F599–F606 Calcification Inhibitors
27. 5. fetuin-A Low serum fetuin-A concentration is inversely associated with the presence of VC in CKD Stage 5D dialysis patients. Serum fetuin-A in CKD patients is mainly present as a fetuin- mineral complex (FMC, composed of fetuin-A, fibrinogen, fibronectin-1 and calcium) rather than in free form. FMC increases progressively as the GFR decreases and serum levels of FMC, but not of fetuin-A in its free form, associates with the CAC score in diabetic predialysis patients. Hamano T, Matsui I, Mikami S et al. Fetuin–mineral complex reflects extraosseous calcification stress in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 1998–2007 Calcification Inhibitors
28. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
29. 6. Magnesium Several in vitro studies have shown that magnesium can have an inhibitory effect on hydroxyapatite formation and precipitation, as well as on calcification. Similarly, elevated magnesium concentrations reduced phosphate-induced calcification in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Tzanakis I, Virvidakis K, Tsomi A et al. Intra- and extracellular magnesium levels and atheromatosis in haemodialysis patients. Magnes Res 2004; 17: 102–108 Ishimura E, Okuno S, Kitatani K et al. Significant association between the presence of peripheral vascular calcification and lower serum magnesium in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 2007; 68: 222–227 Calcification Inhibitors
30. 6. Magnesium Patients with slightly elevated magnesium levels may have a survival benefit, whereas low magnesium levels have been associated with mortality in patients on dialysis. Interestingly, in a pilot study including seven chronic haemodialysis patients, longterm administration of oral magnesium supplements might retard arterial calcification. Spiegel DM, Farmer B. Long-term effects of magnesium carbonate on coronary artery calcification and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study. Hemodial Int 2009; 13: 453–459 Calcification Inhibitors
31. 6. Magnesium Calcification Inhibitors
32. 6. Magnesium Calcification Inhibitors
33. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) Osteopontin (OPN) Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Matrix γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein (MGP) Fetuin-A Magnesium Pyrophosphate (PPi) Calcification Inhibitors
34. 7. Pyrophosphate (PPi) PPi is a major inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation and VC. Plasma PPi levels may be abnormally low in haemodialysis patients. O’Neill et al. studied different types of CKD patients (Stage 4, haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and showed that plasma PPi is negatively correlated with VC. O’Neill WC, Sigrist MK, McIntyre CW. Plasma pyrophosphate and vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 187–191 Calcification Inhibitors
35. 7. Pyrophosphate (PPi) Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/ phosphodiesterases-1 (ENPP1) inhibit vascular calcification through the promotion of extracellular PPi levels in VSMCs Medial calcification of the aorta due to depressed levels of the calcification inhibitor pyrophosphate in the (A) ENPP1-null mouse, compared to (B) wild-type control. Calcification Inhibitors
36. Therapeutic Potentials Question whether VC represents a valid treatment target in CKD patients? !!! A: yes An absolute priority to tackle the burden of CV disease in the high-risk CKD population.
37. Therapeutic Potentials
38. Therapeutic Potentials
39. Therapeutic Potentials
40. Therapeutic Potentials
41. Vascular calcification is a powerful risk marker in CKD patients, so in CKD patients screening for the presence of VC is suggested in current guidelines. There are many underlying causes of vascular calcification that initiate the process by transforming vascular smooth muscle cells to a chondrocyte or osteoblast-like cell. This process is accelerated in a setting of high calcium, high phosphorus, and abnormal bone remodeling in dialysis patients. Conclusion
42. Deficiencies in circulating or locally produced inhibitors of calcification, or a relative absence of inhibitors for a given level of calcium or phosphorous, modulate calcification. Innovative clinical studies addressing the combined use of inhibitors that work through distinct molecular mechanisms on vascular calcification such as fetuin-A, OPN, and OPG, will be necessary to reduce significantly vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality in CKD. Conclusion
Presentation at the EABCT Congress 2014 about a Metacognitive Model of Craving
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