Published on February 22, 2014
Sophia Chan, Eric Duong, Yong X. Gan Department of Mechanical Engineering California State Polytechnic University Pomona February 13, 2014
• Understand the theory and fabrication of nanoparticles • How nanoparticles are applied to cancer treatment
• Research was first done to understand how nanoparticles are used in cancer treatment • How did the heat generated by nanoparticles aid cancer treatment
• Chemotherapy - Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF) are attached to gold nanoparticles with Thiol-derivatized Polyethylene Glycol • Heat Generation - Absorbtion of infrared light from a laser produces heat generation in the nanoshells • Combination (Chemotherapy and Heat Generation) - Nanoparticles act as a drug carrier while a laser produces heat generation
• Also known as magnetic nanoparticles • Exhibits valuable physical and chemical characteristics that can be used in numerous applications in biomedicine - Cell seperation Drug delivery Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Hyperthermia
• Magnetic nanoparticles are first mixed within a carrier fluid(medicine) • Direct injection or tumor specific antibody targeting is then applied to target the tumor • Using various instruments, the tumor is then exposed to an alternating magnetic field to generate heat by magnetic relaxation mechanisms
Ethylene glycol Ammonium flouride Deionized water Power supply
• Making the Solution • 95% Ethylene glycol • 1% Ammonium flouride • 4% Deionized water • Power supply • Kept at 12 Volts • Process time • 24-48 hours
• Takes too long • Very little nanoparticles made • Wastes electricity, since it needed more than12V of power to excite the electrons of the iron rod • Solution will get old, so constant of changing is required • Since if the solution works best and fastest when it is fresh
• Iron (III) nitrate nanahydrate • potassium hydroxide
• Preparing the solution • Iron (III) nitrate nanahydrate, ACS, 98.0-101.0% • Potassium hydroxide (P5958-250G) 2% • Solution precipitates • Iron oxide (Fe2O3/FeO/Fe3O4)
• Put the solution in the centrifuge machine • To separate the precipitate with solution • Collecting the precipitate and letting it dry • The dried precipitate is the nanoparticles used for experiment
• Trying to prove that MNP in different quantities can reach high temperatures in less time • Procedure • Heat one sample at a time • In a time interval of 1 second • Take temperature reading • Let it set cool to the initial temperature • Repeat same above steps for the consecutive second
• • • • Sample 1 and 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 1and 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 • Specimen schematic
200 180 160 Temperature (˚F) 140 120 Sample 1 100 Sample 2 Sample 3 80 Sample 4 Sample 5 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 Differential Time (sec) 4 5
0.0007 Heat Transfer (BTU/hr-ft^2) 0.0006 0.0005 0.0004 Sample 3 Sample 4 0.0003 Sample 5 0.0002 0.0001 0 0 2 37 66 Differential Temperature (˚F) 116
• MNP has a unique magnetic property • Heating Mechanism • No specific proof of how it works • There are 3 assumptions • The initial assumption for heating mechanism is the susceptibility loss. • The other heating mechanism that starts to be activated is the hysteresis loss • Viscous heating or magnetic stirring
• Time is always the most golden factor for cancer treatment • Electromagnetic waves were to excite the magnetic nanoparticles • To force them through the phase of the delay in the relaxation of the magnetic moment through either the rotation within the particle or the rotation of the particle itself • Different losses that goes through that blocks off magnetic nanoparticles and the moments that cannot switch were the reasons behind the generation of heat was beneficial
• NSF Grant No. CMMI-1333044 • CAFA Faculty Development Grant • Cal Poly Pomona 2013-2014 RSCA Program
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