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Published on January 7, 2009

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Literature Review to Inform Social Marketing Objectives and Approaches, and Behaviour Change Indicators, to Prevent and Minimise Gambling Harm : Literature Review to Inform Social Marketing Objectives and Approaches, and Behaviour Change Indicators, to Prevent and Minimise Gambling Harm International Conference on GamblingSeptember 2006 Lana Perese Dr Maria Bellringer Gambling Research Centre National Institute for Public Health and Mental Health Research Auckland University of Technology OBJECTIVES : OBJECTIVES Describe the public health implications of gambling and problem gambling Describe gambling behaviours and attitudes/perceptions towards gambling and information gaps Identify risk and protective factors for gambling harm. Identify information that would inform the development of behaviour change indicators (benchmarks) Perform a high level analysis of the competition Identify the context of services and coordination of them for preventing and minimising gambling harm in New Zealand Define social marketing Identify relevant behaviour change theories METHOD : METHOD Electronic bibliographic indexes accessed via on-line database searches Specialist libraries accessed via web-based searches and searches through personal collections Grey literature accessed via personal collections and through professional and informal networks Professional and informal networks contacted via personal communications and discussion groups IMPACTS OF GAMBLING : IMPACTS OF GAMBLING Benefits of gambling Community funding Employment Tourism Recreation Costs of gambling Employment Finances Crime Relationships PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS : PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS Broad View Community and Societal issues modifiable through social marketing Too early to determine the most effective public health models and interventions Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS : RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS Agent (gambling exposure) Environmental (physical, social and cultural) Host (individual factors) Some groups at more risk Prospective studies RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS : RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS Agent Different gambling forms Exposure through occupation Exposure through distance to venue Familial exposure RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS : RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS Environment Settings/contexts Attitudinal change Internet gambling Technologies Globalisation Sociodemographic and sociocultural factors Ethnicity RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS : RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS Host Biological factors Physical health problems Temperament and personality Cognitions GAMBLING BEHAVIOURS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD GAMBLING : GAMBLING BEHAVIOURS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD GAMBLING Historical context of gambling Why people gamble Theoretical frameworks (limitations) Aetiology remains unclear Do not explain cultural differences Reasons for gambling vary across gambling forms and socio-demographic and ethnic groups INDICATORS OF BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE : INDICATORS OF BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE Few gambling-focused SM, public awareness and prevention programmes evaluated. Multi-lingual message content Targeting Utilised a variety of indicators Increased awareness and knowledge of PG Attitude change Behaviour change (help seeking) Impacts on prevalence and incidence of problem gambling still to be assessed Effective SM approaches (smoking and alcohol) Multi-modal, targeting Combined with educative, policy, legislative and intervention measures MARKETING STRATEGIES : MARKETING STRATEGIES Marketing strategies utilised by gambling industry in New Zealand Sponsorship of sports, cultural and social events Promotion of community benefits Targeting Emphasis on positive aspects of gambling SERVICES FOR PREVENTING AND MINIMISING GAMBLING HARM : SERVICES FOR PREVENTING AND MINIMISING GAMBLING HARM National Helpline Face-to-face counselling Problem gamblers Others affected by problem gambling Specialist Maori, Pacific, Asian, Youth Public health Research Legislation CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION A social marketing approach for gambling in New Zealand is timely as it can coincide with gambling regulations being enforced as requirements of the Gambling Act 2003. Research has shown that when social marketing approaches are conducted in tandem with legislative changes, that they are more effective in positive behavioural change outcomes

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