BWV 1009

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Information about BWV 1009

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: danielhyman10


Cello Suite No. 3 in C, BWV 1009 Johann Sebastian Bach: Cello Suite No. 3 in C, BWV 1009 Johann Sebastian Bach Workshop for Carsten Schmidt’s Baroque Interpretation Dan Hyman, viola March 12, 2003 12:30 PM at MFH 1 Welcome and Overview: Welcome and Overview Historical research on playing and hearing Bach’s string music Notes on the Six Suites for Violoncello Solo Presenting the C Major Suite’s prelude and five courtly dance forms Open discussion Historical Context: Historical Context The more things change, the more some things don’t stay the same What we “know” may or may not apply to earlier eras (Ex.: thematic development) What “everyone knew” then has partly vanished (Ex.: rhetoric as chief liberal art) Development vs Ablauf: Development vs Ablauf Ablauf: a natural course of musical idea within larger structure Haydn through Shostakovich: themes broken up, manipulated, rewoven Third Brandenburg well-known but atypical Suspending expectation of development while listening to more characteristic works Rhetoric and Musical Form: Rhetoric and Musical Form {points from Kirkendale article} Original Music in 1720: Original Music in 1720 Sketch for players to elaborate, ornament Orthography sometimes indicated phrasing Urtext manuscripts often scrapped Bach kept no thematic catalog, unlike Mozart {picture of a Bach MS page}: {picture of a Bach MS page} Copied Music in 1720: Copied Music in 1720 Fair copies and engravings had specific purposes Copyists often “improved” on originals Transcription to preserve / revive outstanding work, or meet tight deadline No recordings till 1877, so when music was over it was also often gone The Cello in 1720: The Cello in 1720 Stradivari built cello to modern proportions in 1710 Tunings and stringings Thumb position 1750’s End pin late 1800’s Viola da Gamba main tenor of string family {pictures of gamba and cello}: {pictures of gamba and cello} Violas in 1720: Violas in 1720 A personal favorite of Bach’s {AMB quote from Efrati} Led Köthen orchestra from viola desk; Prince Leopold omitted others from payroll Many varieties: d’Amore, Bastarda, di Fagotto, da Spalla, Baryton, Cello Piccolo {pictures of various violas}: {pictures of various violas} Bows and Bowing: Bows and Bowing Change of arch, taper and grip over 18th Century Controversy over Schweitzer’s “Bach Bow” General use of detached stroke with lighter tone Lully’s Rule and similar trends / practices {pictures of bows 1650-1800}: {pictures of bows 1650-1800} Halls and Performing Spaces: Halls and Performing Spaces Baroque hall in Köthen sat 100 Inverse-square law in acoustics Performance over centuries more formal, less intimate, more projected Collegium Musicum often as much a social gathering as a “serious” event Early 1700s Courtly Dance: Early 1700s Courtly Dance Entertainment of nobility Grace, poise, refinement Notation of steps, gestures, time {dance diagrams, drawings} : {dance diagrams, drawings} Early 1700s Courtly Dance Music: Early 1700s Courtly Dance Music Actual dance music needed to be clear, steady, simple Each form had varying character, tempo within particular material, circumstances Impact of form on phrase structure Music Videos, Baroque Style: Music Videos, Baroque Style Courante C:\ Dance \ Courante .mpg Sarabande C:\ Dance \ Sarabande .mpg Bourrée C:\ Dance \ Bourree .mpg Clips from Library of Congress online collection, “An American Ballroom Companion”, Jonquil Street Foundation, Coolidge Auditorium, 1998 No powdered wigs, period costumes or partners; just steps and gestures to music Historical Background - Review: Historical Background - Review Listening for Ablauf Written Music Instruments and Bows Performing Spaces Courtly Dance Questions / clarifications? Bach in Köthen, 1717-1723: Bach in Köthen, 1717-1723 Prince Leopold was avid, skilled musician As Kapellmeister, Bach could focus on (ostensibly) secular chamber music Marriage to Anna Magdalena, who copied many of his works Six Brandenburg Concertos Six Sonatas and Partitas for Violin Solo Six Suites for Violoncello Solo Cello Suites - Background: Cello Suites - Background Appeared after violin set, perhaps written before Both likely for private study; C. F. Abel? Four early MS sources but all copies (unlike 1720 violin Urtext); some doubts as to original instrument Prelude, four core dances (Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue) plus Bourrée, Gavotte, or Minuet; all dances binary forms Cello Suites - Points of Interest: Cello Suites - Points of Interest Varying tunings; #5 (C Minor) scordatura, #6 (D Major) added E string Varied characters in same dance forms, e.g. Allemandes and Courantes Bagpipe effects (drones in D Minor and C Major Gigues and D Major Bourrée) Bariolage in G Major and C Major Preludes One-voice “fugue” in C Minor Prelude; extreme case of implied counterpoint Prelude: Prelude Remarks Free fantasia; introduces figures heard elsewhere in suite Rich, sometimes deceptive harmony Pedal points on G and C Performance Allemande: Allemande Remarks Slow processional dance in double time with quick upbeat Performance Courante: Courante Remarks Lively running dance in triple time with short upbeat Performance Sarabande: Sarabande Remarks Solemn processional dance in triple time beginning on downbeat, emphasis on 2 Performance Bourrée I and II: Bourrée I and II Remarks Best-known “tune” of this suite Lively skipping dance in double time with half-note upbeat Here, ornamented repeats in “trio” (Bourree II) Performance Gigue : Gigue Remarks Very lively leaping dance in skipping rhythm (either triple or dotted), usually with upbeat Performance Open Discussion: Open Discussion Q + A Thanks and Acknowledgements Bibliography: Books: Bibliography: Books Bach, J.S., “Six Cello Suites”, S. 1007-1012, for Viola Solo, International Music Co., New York, 1986, Leonard Davis, ed. Bach, J.S., “Six Suites for Violoncello Solo”, BWV 1007-1012, four sources in reduced facsimile, Baerenreiter, Kassel 1995, H. Eppstein, ed. Efrati, Richard, “J.S. Bach: Interpretation of the Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin and the Suites for Solo Cello”, Atlantis, Zurich, 1979, translated by author with Harry Lyth. Gruetzbach, Erwin, “Problems in Style and Performance in the Interpretation of the 6 Suites for Violoncello Solo of J S Bach BWV 1007-1012”, Wagner, Eisenach, 1993. Hilton, Wendy, “Dance and Music of Court and Theater”, Pendragon Press, Stuyvesant, NY, 1997 Schulze, Hans-Joachim, “Studies of Bach Transcription in the 18th Century”, Leipzig, 1984. Schwendowius, B., Doemling, W., eds., “Johann Sebastian Bach: Life, Times, Influence”, Baerenreiter, Kassel, 1977. Vogt, Hans, “J.S. Bach’s Chamber Music: Background, Analysis, Individual Works”, Portland, OR 1988, translated by Kenn Johnson. Bibliography: Periodicals/Media: Bibliography: Periodicals/Media American Memory: Dance Instruction Manuals, Library of Congress Web page; Coolidge Auditorium, 1998. Bach, J.S., “Six Suites for Violoncello Solo”, BWV 1007-1012, Anner Bylsma, cellist, Vivarte Sony Classical, 1992 Kirkendale, Warren, “On the Rhetorical Interpretation of the Ricercar and JS Bach’s Musical Offering”, Studi Musicali, Vol.. 26 Issue no. 2, 1997, PP. 331-376

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