Burocracia, de Ludwig von Mises

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Information about Burocracia, de Ludwig von Mises

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: joseedil1

Source: slideshare.net


Slides utilizados na palestra sobre o livro Burocracia, de Ludwig von Mises, para o Grupo de Estudos Liberais Lobos da Capital. A palestra realizou-se no dia 27 de Fevereiro de 2014 na Universidade de Brasília. O video da apresentação pode ser visto em https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B-DNCDQnBoE.

These slides were used on a presentation about the book Bureaucracy, by Ludwig von Mises, for the Lobos da Capital Libertarian Studies Group on February, 27, 2014. A recording of the presentation can be seen (in portuguese) on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B-DNCDQnBoE.

Burocracia de Ludwig von Mises José Edil Guimarães de Medeiros! Universidade de Brasília

Quem foi Ludwig von Mises?

Ludwig von Mises Áustria,1881 - New York,1973. Filósofo, economista e sociólogo. Um dos grandes nomes da escola austríaca de pensamento. Maior contribuição para a área foi a aplicação da praxeologia em detrimento de observações empíricas.

Qual o contexto histórico do trabalho?

Primeira Guerra Mundial 1914 - 1918

Ascensão do Nazismo 1919 - 1933

Grande Depressão 1929 - 1940

New Deal 1933 - 1938

Segunda Guerra Mundial 1939 - 1945

Estrutura da obra

Profit Management Bureaucratic management Burocracia Bureaucratic management of publicly owned enterprises Bureaucratic management of private enterprises The social and political implications of bureaucratization The phychological consequences of bureaucratization Is there any remedy available?

O termo burocracia é utilizado com uma conotação pejorativa.

“Bureaucracy is but a consequence and a symptom of things and changes much more deeply rooted.”

“It is therefore not correct to say that the bureaucratic system carried its victory by unconstitutional and undemocratic methods.”

“Congress has in many instances surrended the function of legislation to government agencies and commissions...”

“Those who criticize bureaucracy make the mistake of directing their attacks against a symptom only and not against the seat of the evil.”

“Capitalism means free enterprise, sovereignty of the consumers in economic matters, and sovereignty of the voters in pollitical matters.” “Socialism means full government control of every sphere of the individual's life and the unrestricted supremacy of the government in its capacity as central board of production management.”

“Contrary to a popular fallacy there is no middle way, no third system possible as a pattern of a permanent social order.”

“Totalitarism is much more than mere bureaucracy. It is the subordination of every individual's whole life, work, and leisure, to the orders of those in power and office.” ! "Bureaucracy is instrumental in the execution of these plans."

Nicolás Maduro fixa em 30% lucro máximo na Venezuela Estadão, 16 de janeiro de 2014

“What people resent is not bureaucratism as such, but the intrusion of bureaucracy into all spheres of human life and activity.”

Administração sob o regime capitalista

“Neither the capitalists not the entrepreneurs nor the farmers determine what has to be produced. The consumers do that.”

“If the consumers do not buy the goods offered to them, the businessman cannot recover the outlays made. He loses his money.”

“Other men who did better in satisfying the demand of the consumers replace him.”



Cálculo econômico

“There are countless kinds of material factors of production, and within each class they differ from one another both with regard to their physical properties and to the places at which they are available.”

“Which of these potential procedures and plans are the most advantageous? Which should be carried out because they are apt to contribute most to the satisfaction of the most urgent needs?"

“In the capitalist system all designing and planning is based on the market prices.”

“It has been frequently objected that this orientation of economic activity according to the profit motive (...) leaves out of consideration the interests of the nation as a whole and takes account only the selfish interests of individuals, different from and often contrary to the national interests.”

“But it is not the task of the government to improve the behavior of its 'subjects'. Neither is it the task of businessmen.” ! "If the public prefers hard to soft drinks, the entrepreneurs have to yield to these wishes."

Administração capitalista

“The elaborate methods of modern bookkeeping, accountancy, and business statistics provide the enterpriser with a faithful image of all his operations.” ! "The books and the balance sheets are the conscience of business. They are also the businessman's compass."

“Thus within the framework of a profit-seeking enterprise responsibility can be divided. Every submanager is responsible for the for the working of his department. It is to his credit if the accounts show a profit, and it is to his disadvantage if they show a loss.”

“The only instruction required is self-understood and does not need to be especially mentioned: seek profit. Moreover, most of the details can and must be left to the head of every department.”

Diferenças salariais entre homens e mulheres “He simply cannot pay anybody more than he can realize in selling the product.” Salário mínimo

“One of the qualifications required for any higher position is precisely the ability to judge people correctly.” ! “There is no need to look for special protection for the employees against the arbitrariness on the part of their employers or their employer’s mandatories."

“The very fact that labor is, under capitalism, a commodity and is bought and sold as a commodity makes the wage earner free from any personal dependence.” ! “Like the capitalists, (…) the wage earner depends on the arbitrariness of the consumers."

Administração burocrática

Burocracia sob gestão despótica

“As he lacks ubiquity, he must delegate a part of his power to subordinates. They are, in their districts, his deputies, acting in his name and under his auspices”

“In fact they become local despots only nominally subject to the mighty overlord who has appointed them.”

“(…) if the despot, for whom his own arbitrary decision in the only principle of government, appoints a governor and says to him: ‘Be my deputy in this province,’ he makes the deputy’s arbitrariness supreme in this province.”

“(…) the king tries to limit the governor’s powers by issuing directives and instructions.” ! “Their free discretion in now limited; their first duty is now to comply with the regulations.”

Burocracia sob gestão democrática

“Democracy implies the supremacy of the law.”

“Primacy of the law means that no judge of officeholder has the right to interfere with any individual’s affairs or conditions unless a valid law requires or empowers him to do so.”

“Bureaucratic management means, under democracy, management under strict accordance with the law and the budget.”

“It is not for the personnel of the administration and for the judges to inquire what should be done for the public welfare and how the public funds should be spent. This is a task of the sovereign, the people, and their representatives.”

Características essenciais

“From their point of view the main function of the law is to limit power of the authorities and the courts to inflict evils upon individual citizen and to restrict its freedom.”

“This book looks upon the rules and regulations (…) as measures for the execution of the will of the supreme authority.”

“The objectives of public administration cannot be measured in money terms and cannot be checked by accountancy methods.”

“In spending more money he can, very often at least, improve the result of his conduct of affairs. Thrift must be imposed on him by regimentation.”

“In public administration there is no market price for achievements. This makes it indispensable to operate public offices according to principles entirely different from those applied under the profit motive.”

“Bureaucratic management is the method applied in the conduct of administrative affairs the result of which has no cash values on the market.” ! “Bureaucratic management is management of affairs which cannot be checked by economic calculation.”

“We do not say that a successful handling of public affairs has no value, but that it has no price on the market, that its value cannot be realized in a market transaction and consequently cannot be expressed in terms of money.”

A cruz tem de ser carregada

“The plain citizen compares the operation of the bureaus with the working of the profit system, which is more familiar to him. Then he discovers that bureaucratic management is wasteful, inefficient, slow, and rolled up in red tape.” ! “Why not adopt the well-tried methods of private business?"

“What they call deficiencies and faults of the management of administrative agencies are necessary properties. A bureau is not a profit seeking enterprise; it cannot make use of any economic calculation…”

“Like any kind of engineering, management engineering too is conditioned by the availability of a method of calculation. Such a method exists in profit-seeking business. Here the profit-and-loss statement is supreme. The problem of bureaucratic management is precisely the absence of such a method of calculation.”

“(…)quando falta polícia, todos reclamam. Quando a polícia está no local para garantir a ordem pública, conforme prevê a Constituição, é acusada de atrapalhar. Afinal, qual a atitude que a Polícia deve tomar? Deixar de cumprir a lei e permitir que a segurança do cidadão seja comprometida? (…)”

“Minha resposta à citação é bem curta: o papel da polícia é fazer-se cumprir a lei estando dentro da lei. De que adianta usar força tantas vezes quando não se precisa?.”

DCE UnB Honestino Guimarães Boa noite, pessoal. ! Compartilhamos hoje na página o texto do J.C., estudante da graduação em Estatística, sobre um problema que todo aluno da Universidade vivenciou em alguma etapa da sua graduação: a demora por parte do corpo docente em divulgar as notas de testes e avaliações. ! O DCE concorda com as queixas e apóia esse debate, de modo que iremos fomentar a discussão que o estudante nos propôs ! "[UnB] DEMORA NA ENTREGA DE NOTAS ! Um caso meramente acadêmico, porém pertinente na construção de processos mais eficazes: ! Caro Diretório Central dos Estudantes da UnB, ! No último semestre fiquei muito frustrado com a posição de alguns professores ao demorarem para divulgar as notas de provas, testes ou outras atividades que compunham a nota final das disciplinas. ! A demora na divulgação dos resultados, sem justificativa plausível, além de aumentar a ansiedade nos alunos, atrapalha o planejamento dos estudos. Pois, muitas vezes fazemos a 2º ou 3º prova sem sabermos o resultado da 1ª por exemplo. Já recebi as 3 notas de provas do semestre todo na última semana de aula. Acredito que nenhum professor tenha motivos para demorar tanto na entrega dos resultados. ! Por essa motivação pessoal, que acredito ser queixa dos demais alunos da universidade, gostaria de sugerir essa pauta ao DCE: um diálogo com a administração superior da universidade para tentarmos chegar a um acordo entre docentes e discentes, no qual ambas as partes saiam beneficiadas. Estes saberiam, em um prazo determinado por acordo, como se saíram nas avaliações, e aqueles continuariam a ter o respeito dos alunos pela entrega dos resultados em tempo hábil. ! Acho que a questão deve ser levantada como ética profissional dos docentes da universidade. Da qual não precisaria emanar, necessariamente, uma norma para tal prazo de divulgação dos resultados, mas sim um prazo ideal baseado num pressuposto ético ensinado pelos nossos pais: realizar qualquer atividade da melhor forma possível. E nesse ponto, muitos professores estão falhando. ! Caso não seja possível administrativamente, acredito que um acordo informal entre docentes e discentes já seria suficiente para resolver a questão. ! Está aí minha pauta para a atual gestão do DCE, que me fez voltar a acreditar na mobilização estudantil voltada para questões práticas e relevantes, e não apenas em interesses políticos/ideológicos. ! Um abraço, ! J.C., estudante da graduação em Estatística."

Responsável Semestre 2013/01 Pré-Requisitos ENE 167053 — Eletrônica 1 ENE 167029 — Circuitos Elétricos 2 Horário de aulas Terças, Quartas e Quintas — 10:00 às 11:50 Local Engenharia Elétrica Atendimento aos alunos Sextas — 14:00 às 15:30 Programa 1. Subcircuitos CMOS analógicos: chave, carga ativa, espelhos de corrente, referências de tensão e corrente, referências bandgap. SG-11 — LDCI 2. Amplificadores CMOS: amplificador diferencial, amplificador cascode. 3. Projeto de amplificadores operacionais CMOS. 4. Comparadores CMOS. 5. Circuitos a capacitor chaveado: amplificador, integrador. 6. Conversores de dados: ADC e DAC. 7. Outros tópicos relevantes. Metodologia de Ensino O curso é composto por aulas teóricas e de experimentos em laboratório de uma hora e cinquenta minutos. As aulas teóricas expositivas irão abranger os principais conceitos que os alunos devem compreender para cumprir os objetivos da disciplina. Sempre que possível, os conceitos serão ilustrados por meio de exemplos significativos. É esperado que os alunos preparem-se antes das aulas realizando as leituras recomendadas pelo professor e solucionando os exercícios propostos. As aulas de laboratório serão utilizadas para desenvolvimento de um projeto utilizando os conceitos aprendidos.

Burocracia é um sistema de gestão inevitável, não necessariamente ruim ou composto por pessoas ruins, mas diferente daquele utilizado nas instituições de mercado. ! É difícil comparar as gestões burocráticas e de mercado, exceto quando a ausência de cálculo econômico é imposto por lei.

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